We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Nobody downloaded yet

Perspectives - Research Paper Example

Comments (0)
Summary
Perspectives of Watson, Tolman and Skinner (Name) (Institution) (Professor) (Course) (Date) Introduction Any serious student of Psychology would observe that ‘behavior’ was not a topic that was discussed in detail during the early days of Psychology as a separate discipline…
Download full paper
GRAB THE BEST PAPER
Perspectives Paper
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
Perspectives

Download file to see previous pages... It might be of some interest to note that that not only ‘behavior’ but also ‘learning’ was not given much importance by early day psychologists. Possibly they concluded that ‘behavior’ was something that could neither be quantified nor categorized and thus did not merit any special investigation. However, at the beginning of 20th century some psychologists felt that ‘behavior’ indeed identifies a man and makes him stand out in his interactions with fellow humans and therefore can very well be considered as an outward manifestation of an individual’s psychological constitution. Though, they did agree that it cannot quantified and thus cannot be measured or compared in absolute terms. Thus, a small band of psychologists took it upon themselves to study ‘behavior’ in intricate detail while the majority continued to stick to the earlier stance of not giving ‘behavior’ that much importance. In this paper the perspectives of Watson, Skinner and Tolman are compared and contrasted and an attempt has been made to relate their perspectives to modern day approach to psychology as a separate discipline. John B. Watson Watson is widely believed to be the father of the term ‘behaviorism’ and is credited with the introduction, or should we say, infiltration of this term in mainstream psychology. Watson also took a distinctly adamant stand in the age old nature versus nurture debate in that he believed that nurture, which is, how a person is brought up and his experiences since childhood, plays a distinct role in shaping his approach and attitude and nature has very little role to play in such formation. As a proof of his contention, he conducted the famous experiment of white rat and how fear got instilled in the psyche of Little Albert when a loud frightening sound accompanied every time the rat was shown to the child. As a further proof of his contention, in a slightly changed scenario, he showed the white rat to the child who was struck with a steel bar a little while after he observed the white rat. Thus fear acquired two connotations to Albert, one is the sight of the white rat and the other was the sound of his crying as he was struck by a steel bar. By this combined exposure to conditioned stimulus of the white rat and unconditioned stimulus of getting struck by a steel bar Albert was conditioned to be perpetually afraid of white rat. Watson reasoned that fears that are conditioned remain with a person and modify his behavior for the rest of his life (Leary, 2004). By the end of the first decade of 20th century Watson published his classical treatise Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It where he made a tersely woven logical case for behavior to be considered as an integral part of psychological analysis. He started his argument with the assumption that was never doubted or challenged by any scholar that psychology is a scientific discipline on its own merit. As psychology is a separate science it needs to be based on empirical data that could be independently verified through experiments. Facts that are observed during experiments are by definition observable and could be codified. The only publicly observable aspect of psychology is behavior and not consciousness that can neither be observed nor codified. Therefore, the most popular method at that time of studying consciousness, that is, introspection cannot be termed as a scientific ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment
CHECK THESE SAMPLES - THEY ALSO FIT YOUR TOPIC
Perspectives within Behaviorism in Psychology
 As theories developed in the field of Psychology, differing perspectives have existed even among those who started the Behaviorist Movement in the 1990s. John B. Watson, who coined the word “behaviorism,” soon found his perspective different from those of his colleagues B. F. Skinner and Edward C. Tolman. 
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper
Reaction Paper to Patricia Cranton's Book: Professional Development as Transformative Learning New Perspectives for Teachers
When educators disregard their personal learning and learning experiences they become unable to adopt an empathetic position towards their students and the students’ experiences. Teachers should typically engage in transformative learning to equip themselves with essential tools to enable them effectively administer education to their students, both young and adult learners.
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper
Research Critique: Nursing Care Perspectives
The development of this understanding helps not only in understanding how the results were obtained, but also being able to replicate the research and assess validity and reliability based on how methodologies and research procedures were put to use (Burns & Grove, 2011).
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper
The Internet from Christian and Islamic Perspectives
It is this fundamental characteristic that is relevant in approaching the Internet as a subject from Christian and Islamic points of view. Both of these religious faiths have established norms, culture and mission. This paper will determine whether there is any marked difference between the Christian and Islamic attitudes towards the Internet.
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper
Individual perspectives paper
Tolman in the realm of behaviorism and behavioral psychology. In order to understand the similarities and differences between the thoughts of these famous psychologists, we must first briefly reflect on each of them separately. J.B. Watson actively took part in “the early 20th century disciplinary strivings toward a moderate account of psychological subject matter” (Ballantyne, 2008, p.
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper
Skills and Perspectives Needed for Working with Families from Diverse Backgrounds
Positive reception among the masses is a prerequisite to the winning workability of a social worker. Anti-oppressive practices must, therefore, be taken up and proper alterations in the service-user relationships must be carried out from apposite and compassionate viewpoints.
7 Pages(1750 words)Research Paper
Multi-generational Sustainability Perspectives and Practices
The way people perceive the environment determines their decisions towards the environment and this worries many human geographers and environmentalists. This paper seeks to assess how the elderly population and the young generation perceive the environment, their roles in the use of natural resources, their consumption practices, recreation, travel, and food sources and storage.
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Paper
Five general perspectives on human behavior-biological, learning, social and cultural, cognitive and psychodynamic influences
These perspectives include the biological, learning, socio-cultural, cognitive, and psychodynamic influences; biological influences are the inherent human genes, while learning influences include environmental interactions and experiences. Socio-cultural influences include the gendered perspectives of human relationships in societies whereas the cognitive influences entail the mind processes that govern human behavior; the psychodynamic influences are the psychological explanations.
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper
Ethical Perspectives
For global organizations however, bridging the gap between culture and globalization not a choice but a principle that cannot be overlooked (Collins, 2007). This is because the need to go global represents a need to have an understanding for different cultures,
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper
Perspectives of Native American Tribes (Response Paper)
of the paper represents clear identification and brief description about the defining events or aspects regarding history for the Native American communities. In addition, the discussion provides the key factors or events that shaped the experience of the Native
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Let us find you another Research Paper on topic Perspectives Paper for FREE!
Contact us:
+16312120006
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us