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... Intelligence; History and General Theory Artificial intelligence or AI; "is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs. It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence, but AI does not have to confine itself to methods that are biologically observable." McCarthy (2007)1. It is widely believed that the term AI was first coined by John McCarthy at the Dartmouth Conference in 1955 in the famous paper entitled A Proposal for the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence by John McCarthy, M. L. Minsky, N. Rochester, and C.E. Shannon, August 31, 1955: "We propose that a 2 month, 10 man study...