Free

Sustainability of shellfish stocks in the Irish Sea - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
They are of great economic importance and are a source of seafood up to 50% by value. They are also a source of food for wildlife and important in stabilising the seabed…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER98.1% of users find it useful
Sustainability of shellfish stocks in the Irish Sea
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Sustainability of shellfish stocks in the Irish Sea"

A critical from the seminar on sustainability of Shellfish Stocks in the Irish Sea Abstract from the seminar on sustainability of Shellfish Stocks in the Irish Sea
Shellfish are commercially harvested marine invertebrates such as decapods crustaceans and Bivalve molluscs. They are of great economic importance and are a source of seafood up to 50% by value. They are also a source of food for wildlife and important in stabilising the seabed. However the marine invertebrates are facing extinction due to pollution and climate change that causes acidification and rise in sea temperatures respectively, parasites and diseases, overfishing, unexplained mass die offs, unexplained and unpredictable migrations (Galway, 2009)1. The seminar presentation seeks to find ways that could help sustain the population of fish stocks in the Irish Sea.
In order to achieve this, the organisms must be organized into different breeding groups, migration patterns; productivity, genetics and habitats must be first explored and understood. The shellfish were organized into a population structure whereby a population is a group of organisms of one species which can freely interbreed and live in the same place at a time (Atkinson, 2000)2. Populations can be further divided into sub-populations where interbreeding is restricted and the organisms accumulate genetic differences and may locally adapt to the environment. Another way of organizing the shellfish is by the use of the stock concept. This involves division into stocks for easier management. However, this may not accurately reflect genetic sub-division because in subdivision and productivity concept, each sub-population contributes absolute productivity to the total population which may vary depending on environmental conditions.
While extirpation of subpopulations decreases, total productivity may increase vulnerability to environmental change and decrease genetic diversity. In considering subdivision and gene flow, the reduction in size or density of subpopulations may reduce migration between subpopulations and increases genetic drift or may increase migration into some subpopulations. Migration of locally harvested stock contribute to breeding populations over a much wider geographical area, for example, salmon and trout harvested in the ocean contain migrants from many different freshwater streams which are genetically isolated subpopulations and locally adapted to breeding streams (Nielsen, 1994)3.
The methodologies used include the migration of larvae or adults between subpopulations, DNA extraction of haemolymph or muscle, DNA analysis through gene sequencing and screen for microsatellite markers used to measure genetic diversity. Another methodology is the use of particle tracking models that explore the use of simulations which is based on known oceanographic processes such as currents and fronts. It also explores the use of larvae released from various locations where the model predicts their travel pattern. And finally the use of limitations in which the behaviour of larvae is unknown and several alternative scenarios must be modelled like passive transport, tidal migration and diel migration. The results obtained for example with cockles, show that the genetic structure exists but are not primarily geographic and the gene flow supports the predictions of the particle tracking model (Thorpe, 1995)4. Another example of the results obtained is with the Flamborough Head population, monitored using microsatellite markers in which the historical data obtained from otolith samples, show that between 1954 and 1970, genetic diversity declined due to harvesting while between 1970-1998 genetic diversity increased despite continued intensive harvesting and due to immigration which has as a result caused the loss of original genetic characteristics.
Conclusion from case study is that shell disease syndrome of crabs and lobsters may be associated with the sediment type, heavy metal pollution and insecticide pollution. It is also noted that genetics can help in identifying parasites and other agents of disease trough phylogenetics, describe population structure and identify source population of introduced shellfish and parasites (Dublin, 2009)5. It is thus recommended that current harvest be reduced to increases long-term sustainability, reverse historical declines though this will cause hardship for dependent communities like the coastal fishermen. Another decision is that, measures to reduce long-term genetic harm are more likely to be accepted but only if they produce short-term benefits such as maintaining large, old individuals.
Bibliography
Atkinson, P. W. (2000). The effects of changes in shellfish stocks and winter weather on shorebird populations: results of a 30-year study on the Wash, England. Thetford: British Trust for Ornithology.
Dublin, I. (2009). Shellfish stocks and fisheries: review 2009. Galway: Marine Institute.
Galway, I. (2009). Shellfish stocks and fisheries review 2009: an overview of shellfisheries legislation, management and economic value in Ireland and assessement of selected stocks. Galway: Marine Institute.
Nielsen, R. (1994). Fish and shellfish: shared Nordic marine stocks. Cph.: Nordic Council of Ministers.
Thorpe, J. E. (1995). Conservation of fish and shellfish resources managing diversity, London: Academic Press. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Sustainability of shellfish stocks in the Irish Sea Essay”, n.d.)
Sustainability of shellfish stocks in the Irish Sea Essay. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/environmental-studies/1593733-sustainability-of-shellfish-stocks-in-the-irish-sea
(Sustainability of Shellfish Stocks in the Irish Sea Essay)
Sustainability of Shellfish Stocks in the Irish Sea Essay. https://studentshare.org/environmental-studies/1593733-sustainability-of-shellfish-stocks-in-the-irish-sea.
“Sustainability of Shellfish Stocks in the Irish Sea Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/environmental-studies/1593733-sustainability-of-shellfish-stocks-in-the-irish-sea.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Sustainability of shellfish stocks in the Irish Sea

Compare Three Stocks

...? a. Give business summary and key statistics for each. The three stocks that I have chosen for my portfolio are from S&P 500 index. The index currently floats at 1234.83 which dropped from marginally from its previous day close at 1255.19. The three companies include Abbot Laboratories (ABT), Amazon.com Inc. (AMZN) and 3M Co. (MMM). Abbot Laboratories (ABT) belongs from the health care sector and specializes in Drug Manufacturing. The company was founded in 1888. The company is located in United States and possess a workforce of 90,000 fulltime employees. The company practices discovery, development, manufacture, and sale health products globally. Its drug portfolio contains medicine of almost every discovered disease present... a workforce...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Paper

Irish revolution

...Irish Revolutionary Introduction Revolutions and change go hand in hand since revolutions result in changes in politics and the way of living in the society. Actually, changes are very important in the society and people cannot just resolve whether all conflicts result in positive changes unless a general analysis is done on the revolution. Therefore, revolutionary conflict may mean the emphasis of the condition of dual sovereignty. The occurrence of dual sovereignty means that an occurrence of revolution follows. On the other hand, it may become very difficult to establish the result of the conflict whether it brings about a positive or a negative change especially when the revolutionaries succeed and the challenging...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Stocks

...What are Stocks The Webster's New World Dictionary defines Stocks as The capital invested in a company or corporation through the buying of shares each of which entitles the buyer to a share in the ownership and voting rights etc. Stocks are a kind of "Security" which will be representative of the equitable share of ownership of a corporation or a business concern. The owners of the stock in a business thus are the equitable owners of the business to the extent of the percentage that they have contributed(Maunder 3rd Ed).This ownership yields them the power or mandate to control the voting rights and have a share in the company's profits which accumulate through dividends /capital appreciation. (Maunder 3rd Ed)Also in the event... of...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Cadmium in Shellfish

...www.academia-research.com Sumanta Sanyal d: 06/05/07 Report: Levels of Cadmium in Mussels and Scallops available in Adelaide Central Market Abstract Shellfish - mussels and scallops - were collected from Adelaide Central market and subjected to digestion experiments with nitric and hydrochloric acids to sample cadmium content in them after subjection to an atomic absorption spectrometer. The means (g/g shellfish tissue) for scallops were 0.457 while that for mussels were 0.164. Five samples of each type of shellfish was used in the experiments. The weekly dietary intake figure for the scallops worked out at 1.5 g/kg for a low...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Stocks Perference

...Stock Preference Q1. Should ALLGR consider issuing common stocks and bonds or simply stay with the issuance of common stocks only? There are a numberof issues to be considered while coming out with an Initial Public Offering. As a company plans to go public, it has to keep in mind the interests of various parties. “The regulators to the issue will consider the following: 1.Experienced management and Directors 2.Conflict of interest between business and shareholders 3. Conflict of interest between Directors’ private affairs 4.Plans for the future and strategy 5.Recently audited financial statements”.[Ross Geddes] In my opinion, it is prudent to consider issue of only common...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Valuing Stocks

...to influence decision in the stock issuing company. d. Liquidation rights if the company goes bankrupt. e. Capital gain on upward movement of stocks. 2. "Why might the Standard and Poors 500 Index be a better measure of stock market performance than the Dow Jones Industrial Average?" (Cornett, Adair, and Nofsinger, 2012, p. 172). Solution: The major difference between the two index is that the Standard and Poors 500 Index is a market value weighted index of 500 stocks while Dow Jones Industrial Average includes a price weighted average of 30 stocks of largest companies in the U.S across a range of industries. Both of these measurements are used by...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

High return stocks, low return stocks, and

...A False Regime of Financial Philosophy of Attaching Higher Risk with Higher Return A False Regime of Financial Philosophy of Attaching Higher Risk with Higher Return The economic climate and political one are intertwined in nature, and therefore, it is very important to keep a close eye on level of political power that companies have at any given time. The world of business is already filled with the countless instances of accounting irregularities. The investors cannot simply trust what market dynamics tell them because they have to treat everything as a lie before the information checks out (Vernon, 1966). However, most of the companies use advertisement as the means of cultivating positive intentions and hopes in the customers...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Three stocks

...Dear Mr. ….. Investing in the stock market can be a challenging endeavor because of the risks involved. But with research and substantial information regarding the stocks, it can offer promising returns. It is a source of investment that dearly pays and ascertains financial security for the future. Taking the initiative to invest in the stock is a great step towards gaining an extra income as you literally ‘watch your money grow’. There are a lot of public companies that one can invest in, but I recommend these three companies namely Microsoft, General Motors and Apple Inc. These companies outstanding performance throughout the past five years in the stock market make...
2 Pages(500 words)Assignment

Threats to Human Health: Shellfish Farming

...). The effect of salmon farming on the benthos of a Scottish sea loch. . Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology , 109. C. P. C. David, Y. Y. (2009). Coastal pollution due to increasing nutrient flux in aquaculture sites Environmental Geology. environmental geology , 447-454. CHUA THIA ENG, P. J. (n.d.). The environmental impact of aquaculture and the effects of pollution on coastal aquaculture development in Southeast Asia. Marine pollution bulletin , 335-343. Dalsgaard A., H. H.-K. (1995). Prevalence of Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella in a major shrimp production area in Thailand. Int. J. Food Microbiol. , 101-113. environmental effects. (n.d.). Retrieved June 25, 2010, from the association for responsible...
8 Pages(2000 words)Term Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Sustainability of shellfish stocks in the Irish Sea for FREE!

Contact Us