Clean Water Act - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Heavy industrialization, farming with the help of fertilizers, chemicals and pesticides and other injudicious human activities are polluting the surface water and ground water sources. Clean water…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.6% of users find it useful
Clean Water Act
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Clean Water Act"

Clean Water Act Clean Water Act Water pollution is one of the major problems facing by United s at present. Heavy industrialization, farming with the help of fertilizers, chemicals and pesticides and other injudicious human activities are polluting the surface water and ground water sources. Clean water act (CWA) was introduced in America with an intention to reduce water pollution activities as much as possible. “Under the CWA, any discharge of a pollutant from a point source is only allowed pursuant to a permit issued by the EPA or by a state agency after EPA approval of a state plan” (Smith, 2009, p.133).
According to CWA, the more complex problem associated with the water problems in America, is with respect to the quality of the available water rather than the quantity. In other words, America has enough water sources to cater the needs of the public; however, the number of fresh water sources is less. Point sources such as pipe, sewer, ditch, factories, some sewage treatment plants, landfills, hazardous waste sites, and leakage from gasoline storage tanks and non-point sources such as runoff from irrigation containing salts and residue from pesticides, runoff from animal feedlots, salts from the salting of winter roads, and storm runoff from the streets of urban areas (Smith, 2009, p.133) are equally causing major threats to the availability of fresh water in America.
“Since 1970, CWA regulations have reduced the discharge of untreated sewage into the nation’s waterways by 90 percent” (Smith, 2009, p.136). CWA succeeded in reducing a substantial amount of water pollution in America. However, the depth of the problem is so severe and CWA needs periodical updating to strengthen its norms. Clean Water Act is giving more emphasize to the prevention of pollution from point sources and it remains silent on the issue of the pollutions from nonpoint sources. In other words, CWA is addressing only one side of the problem and that also in an ineffective manner. Smith (2009) has pointed out that budget cuts in the EPA as well as in state environmental agencies and poor staffing have resulted in the ineffective functioning of EPA and other environmental agencies (Smith, 2009, p.134). In other words, only the most visible permit violators are getting punishment for polluting water in America whereas all the others who are responsible for water pollution in an indirect manner, able to escape from punishments.
The budget allocation for the functioning of EPA and other environmental agencies should be increased further in order to make the functioning of these agencies more effective. Staffing problems in these agencies should be corrected so that comprehensive monitoring and subsequent prevention of pollution of the waters sources would be possible. The penalties for water pollution are not adequate to force the polluters from refraining from their activities. Stiffer penalties will force the water polluters to think twice before they start any activities which may pollute water. Smith (2009) has pointed out that the difficulties in employing the mechanisms provided by CWA are the major cause of failures of CWA (Smith, 2009, p.134). In the absence of aggressive monitoring, polluters will influence the officials through bribes and will escape from punishments.
To conclude, Clean Water Act is good in principle; but it failed to meet its objectives because of budget shortage for the functioning of EPA and other environmental agencies, ineffective monitoring methods, ineffective penalties, etc. These problems should be corrected and environmental agencies should be given more power to make the CWA more effective and meaningful.
1. Smith Z. A. (2009). The Environmental Policy Paradox (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River,
NJ : Pearson. ISBN 9780555030264 Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Clean Water Act Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words”, n.d.)
Clean Water Act Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words. Retrieved from
(Clean Water Act Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words)
Clean Water Act Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words.
“Clean Water Act Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document


The Clean Air Act

...The Clean Air Act (1990) Since the World War II, the US economy has continued to grow. This growth can be attributed to increased manufacturing. The large number of industries in the US was a source of pollutants that continued to degrade the environment. Thus, the need to regulate the amount off pollutants that industries could discharge into the air arose. This article discusses the 1990 Clean Air Act. A brief history of the act has been described with highlighting of the major events. Response of the industry to the act is then discussed. Shortcomings of the act that necessitate future amendments have been described...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Keep Our Water Clean not to ourselves only, we as humans have an obligation to cater to our fellow being’s need as well. If our area’s water supply has been tested and confirmed safe from contamination does not in any way mean that we ignore the above discussed measures. Leaching is a process through which contaminations move and mix to far off water supplies and reservoirs. Our one careless act of littering or throwing wastes improperly can bring other people’s health to harm, even to far off places. Conclusion: Keeping our water clean is not only our responsibility but an obligation to our future generation as well. A change of attitude and living styles can easily...
7 Pages(1750 words)Research Paper

Clean water drinking water nothing. There are innumerable uses of water. Cleaning, drinking, washing cooking farming is just to name a few. Water has been reshaping man’s life and his land even before man ever knew. The land that we sit on today may well have been underwater sometime as it is proposed that all of Earth was a continuation of water and land emerged from underneath it as a resultant of movements of Earth’s Crust. Besides being available to us in the liquid form of water it also maintains the entire ecosystem of the planet by being an integral part of the weather system. Humidity in the air and large bodies of water in the form of lakes and rivers...
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper

Clean Water in the Environmental Policy Context

...will be on the Clean Water Act, 1977 which provides the basic policy framework to tackle this issue through pollution control programs and limitation of discharge into waterbodies (Summary of Clean Water Act, 2011). The research examines perspectives into the challenges facing this Act and comes up with recommendations on how to deal with these challenges. The paper undertakes a critical view of the recommendations and examines how it can be applied in reality. Clean Water Act 1977 The Clean Water Act was enacted “... to...
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay

Clean Water Act by EPA

...? Clean Water Act (CWA) by EPA Your al Affiliation This paper explores Clean Water Act initiated by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1948, modified and expended in 1972 and 1977. The 1972 legislation specified programs for water quality improvement. Since its enactment, the law is continuously expanded and implemented by industries and municipalities. Primarily, water pollution was considered a state and local problem. However, there were no federally required objectives, goals, limitations, or even guidelines. In United States, nearly all manufacturing companies discharge their wastewater or...
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper

The Clean Air Act

...The Clean Air Act The Clean Air Act of the United s was established to minimize and control air pollution on a nationwide level (Jacobson 1). It mandates the Environmental Protection Agency, also known as EPA, to design and implement regulations protecting the citizens from exposure to hazardous airborne contaminants that pose a risk to human health and the environment. It was first initiated in 1963 to establish a research program. It was then expanded in 1967 and amended in 1970 and 1977 to include regulatory measures for both mobile and stationary causes of air pollution (Jacobson 1). A final amendment was made in 1990 to address acid rain, toxic air pollution and the...
3 Pages(750 words)Term Paper

Economic Repercussions of the Clean Air Act

...or benefits of regulation is existent. Emission fees should entail the costs of checking. The economy, in short, is a valuable appendage to the Clean Air Act operations. References Crandall, R. (1983). Controlling Industrial Pollution: The Economics and Politics of Clean Air. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. Freedman, M. & Jaggi, B. (1993). Air and Water Pollution Regulation: Accomplishments and Economic Consequences. Westport, CT: Quorum Books. Freedman, W. (1987). Federal Statutes on Environmental Protection. New York: Quorum Books. Melnick, R. S. (1983). Regulation and the Courts: The Case of the Clean Air Act. Washington, DC:...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Clean Water Act regulate oil spills in the United States (LAW)

... The Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Control of Oil Spills The Oil Pollution Act (OPA) of 1990, while amending section 311 of the Clean Water Act (CWA), gave specific role to the government in prevention the oil spills, responding to oil spills, and subjecting the parties responsible of oil spills to pay for damages (Oil Spills/SPCC 1). Implementation of OPA is a responsibility of Coast Guard and the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) (Chapter Eight 2). The section in Law that protects the environment from oil discharge is 40 CFR 110, and for Oil Pollution Prevention it is 40 CFR 112 (Pollution Control 1). The section of CWA that prohibits the discharge of threshold amounts of oil or hazardous substances into navigable waters... oil and...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Pakistan humanitarian needs (Solar energy and Clean water plants)

...that Islamists are part of political system following the election of Rehman as the leader of opposition. Tribalism is evident by the number of killings in areas occupied by different tribes like Uzbeks and Chechens. Ethno-nationalism is also evident when militants destroyed energy producing station in Balochistan (Gladstone, 120). The author has a number of claims regarding Pakistan as a weak country due to various reasons including failure to protect its citizens. The author has substantial evidences to support the claims derived from undesirable acts from different groups posing threats to the country. After the analysis of the claims, I have effectively understood the humanitarian needs of the Pakistan people. The...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment

The Clean Air Act

...The Clean Air Act The Clean Air Act The Clean Air Act is codified as 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq. (1970). The Act was passed in 1970. The Act aimed at protecting human health and the environment from emissions. Such emission particularly, pollute outdoor, ambient and air. The environmental protection agency was thus required to create a minimum national standards for quality of air. Further the Act mandated the Agency to assign the primary obligation to the states ensure standards compliance. The nonattainment areas are to implement particular air pollution control measures. The...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Clean Water Act for FREE!

Contact Us