e white cheeked spider monkeys, Brazilian bare-faced tamarins, giant otter, jaguars, hyacinth Macaw, Golden Lion Tamarin, Amazon river Dolphins, poison dart frogs, black spider monkey and many other tree dwelling species (Sample, 2012; Worldwidelife, 2013). The region has a high biodiversity as it contain over 40, 000 plant species, 3000, freshwater fish species and 370 types of reptiles (Worldwidelife, 2013). Continued deforestation can risk existence of all these living beings. Some of the main plants that are directly affected by deforestation are Virola and giant Kapok which are used for ply wood in commercial construction (TheAmazon, 2007). Other hardwoods like teak, mahogany, rosewood are also used extensively by locals (Wallace, 2011). Other than extinction of plants and animals in Amazon River Basin, deforestation can cause migration of aquatic and terrestrial animals causing disturbance in regular ecosystem. Other than species being directly affected by deforestation, the disruption faced by ecosystem in Amazon has also risked continuity of life in this region. Due to deforestation, soil erosion takes place which makes the deforested area unsuitable for further plantation (Coe, Costa & Soares-Filho, 2009). In addition to that, lack of humidity retention also affected water retention in springs present in Amazon River Basin which affects continuous supply of fresh water and also aquatic plants and animals present in it. Furthermore, presence of microorganisms is also affected by
mass deforestation. Since these microorganisms are responsible for soil fertility, therefore further cultivation may face problems. In addition to that, use of pesticides in plantations in deforested area further pollutes rest of the water reservoirs and forests which is injurious for...
Since geographic researchers have emphasized greatly on preservation of forests in Amazon River Basin as they contribute to more than half of oxygen present in the planet, there are various measures that humans need to take in order to establish sustainable practices in and around Amazon River Basin. It can be suggested that instead of deforesting more land for cultivation, local farmers can use effective agricultural techniques to use the land that has been degraded already. In addition to that, measures like agroforestry, poly-cultural fields and floodplain orchards can provide more incentives to local cash crop producers. Secondly, different government policies can also help in curtailing deforestation by large corporations and local authorities.
Amazon River Basin is a hub of large biodiversity and supports life activity of the whole planet. Over the last few decades, deforestation due to human activities and natural disasters has greatly endangered the lives of species living in this region. Logging, hydroelectric activities including construction of dams, has caused severe damage to the life in Amazon. Where there are plants and animals that are directly affected by deforestation, there are many other species and living organisms that are affected by disrupted ecosystem. However, restriction on selective logging, emphasis on corporate social responsibility, restrictions on large corporations, training provided to local farmers and creating sources of employment for local population instead of cattle ranching can help reducing the rate of deforestation.