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Maritime Environmental Issues - Essay Example

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Maritime Environmental issues Name: Institution: Introduction The surface of the sea in the equatorial part of Pacific Ocean experiences some anomalies resulting from El Nino and La Nina. As contrarily expected, the El Nino is often characterized by warm temperatures…
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Download file to see previous pages El Nino is characterized by extended differences on surface temperatures in Pacific Ocean compared to the average temperature value. It is a cooling or warming of at least 0.9 0F or 0.5 0C in average over east central of tropical Pacific Ocean (Philander1990). In general, the anomaly takes place at an interval of between 3 to 7 years regularly and lasts for between nine months and two years. This anomaly is characterized by events such as: rise in pressures in the surface over Australia, Indonesia, and Indian Ocean; a fall in atmospheric pressure over the eastern and central Pacific Ocean and Tahiti; arising warm air near Peru which usually causes rains in the deserts of northern Peruvian; weakening trade winds in Pacific; and spreading warm water from the west Pacific to the east Pacific and Indian Ocean. This causes extensive drought in west Pacific and rain to the eastern Pacific which is normally dry (Hayes 1991). El Nino is often characterized by warm temperatures, this is because of its warm rush of the tropical water that is poor in nutrients and is majorly heated by its tendency of eastern passage through the equatorial current where it displaces the cold water on the surface of the Humboldt Current which is rich in nutrients (McPhaden 1993. In cases where El Nino conditions and/ or episodes lasts for quite long, then the reduction in the trade winds in the east and the extensive warming of the ocean limits the nutrient rich cold deep water together with its economic effects to the local fishing for the international market (Lee 2000). These quasi periodic patterns of climate are experienced across tropical Pacific Ocean approximately after every 5 years. The anomaly phenomenon takes place due to the Southern Oscillation which varies the air pressure of the surface water in the western Pacific and the temperatures of water surface in the eastern Pacific Ocean (Brown 1986). It is the extremes of the oscillations that results into the anomalies of the weather conditions in many parts of the world. Those developing countries that boarder Pacific Ocean are widely affected. The phenomenon that characterizes El Nino with unusual warm temperatures of the surface of the ocean in the eastern and central tropical Pacific and unusual cool temperatures of the surface water of the ocean in the central and eastern tropical Pacific, results from the strong circulation of the air in the tropics. This oscillation is famous for influencing climate patterns and weather around the globe (Roberts 1993). Observations have been made on the occurrence of the events resulting from La Nina and El Nino. There is a drift towards the cool neutral side in relation to the sub surface and surface of the temperatures of the ocean along side various changes in the circulation of atmosphere (Dietrich 1999). These changes have indicated a drastic movement in the odds of La Nina that forms in the forthcoming period. This has resulted into uncertainty and the need for close monitoring for any particular signs of future developments. Today, El Nino has been characterized by oscillation of the atmosphere system of the ocean in the tropical Pacific which poses very significant consequences on the weather and climate around the globe. These consequences include high rainfall in Peru and the southern tier of the Unites States, drought and destructive flooding in West Pacific, and in some cases associated with distressing bush fires in Australia (Herpes 2001). El Nino results into warmer winters ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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