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Theoretical Perspective on Secure Attachment - Essay Example

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There are differing many views regarding attachment theory. Sigmund Freud, is one of the founding fathers of modern psychology and also the one who instigated the psychoanalytic branch of psychology. His examination of infant attachment development resulted to some interesting theories…
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Download file to see previous pages He claims that the infant's primary or original bond is with its mother, which then become the basis for all the forthcoming loves he will be feeling. He also claims that infants only have the desire in his mother's arms simply because the infant has already established that his mother will satisfy and provide for his needs without delay. However, Freud's more significant theory to the development of infant attachment is his drive reduction theory. He used the basic biological drives that are innate in human as the basis for this theory. He explains this by stating that when an infant is driven, an example of which is when he cries, he will then experience pleasure by receiving food resulting to the restoration of balance. (Freud, 1964) Another theory was introduced by Erik Erikson, called the Psycho-Social Theory also known as the Pschodynamic Theory. He was the first to propose that there are different stages of human development that lasts throughout the entire life span. His ideas were a huge influence that led to the study of personality development His theory also accounts for the term "identity crisis." He introduced eight stages to human development and later on added a ninth stage in his book entitled “Life Cycle Completed.” The first two stages pertain to the infant attachment theory, which he called the stage of hope and the stage of will. He claims that on the hope stage, between 0 to 12 months, an infant is trying to make a choice between trust versus mistrust as he tries to weigh whether his primary caregiver is reliable or not. The will stage on the other hand, is the stage of autonomy versus shame and doubt. He claims the will stage as the stage wherein the infant's need to explore the world, which may or may not be hindered by a caregiver's utter neglectfulness or over-protectiveness. (Cole, 2009) Though Freud instigated the infant attachment concept, John Bowlby was known as the father of the attachment theory after making the first and commonly known view on attachment theory. Bowlby believes that there are a number of innate control systems pertaining to behavior are a necessity for surviving as well as procreation. He also believes that attachment begins at infancy, continuing on throughout life. According to Blowby, an infant initially establishes a strong attachment with its primary caregiver and will become the infant's base of exploration. It is innate behavior for an infant to want to explore new things, however, when a child reaches away to explore and then faced with danger or feels scared, its secure protection base will be with the primary caregiver. Bowlby dedicated an extensive research to the concept of infant attachment, which he described as a "lasting psychological connectedness between human beings" (Bowlby, 1988). He also shared the psychoanalytic view that early experiences in childhood are important influences affecting development and behavior which may be seen later in life. Based on his theory, our early attachment styles are established in childhood through the relationships between infants and primary caregivers. In addition to this, Bowlby was also of the belief that attachment had an evolutionary factor wherein it aids in survival stating that "the propensity to make strong emotional bonds to particular individuals is a basic component of human nature" (Bowlby, 1988). Bowlby also categorized different characteristics of attachments and are as follows: Safe Haven: When the child feels ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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