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Introduction Due to the fact that the extraction and processing of natural or energy resource for mass consumption can be cause adverse outcomes not only in financial aspects but on the environment as well, the extraction of shale gas from shale formations has been an important concern in France and throughout the world…
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Download file to see previous pages Owing to such occurrences, water usage has been greatly affected in areas that are utilized for shale gas production with which communities have recognized the adverse effects of shale gas drilling on their water quality and watersheds. Moreover, studies have also pointed out the potential of shale gas to bring about methane emissions and its contributions to global warming (Kattel 2003). These reports have, therefore, emphasized the need to conduct further research on the impact of shale gas on the environment and the society as a whole along with effective measures that can help control its negative outcomes. Environmental programs in France and in different countries have aimed to promote an affordable, reliable, and sustainable supply of oil and natural gas, through the use of technologies that comply to environmental regulations. The increase of environmental protection during shale gas and oil operations along with the development, use, and management of environmental regulatory frameworks has been emphasized (Raukas 2005). A number of trends have currently increased the need to conduct research into the means of reducing the environmental impact of gas and oil production. For example, stakeholders of various levels have taken interest into making favorable decisions with regards to land use options and the use of scientifically reliable data which exhibit the costs and advantages of energy development. While there has been a decline in the traditional production of natural gas, the options for replacing such processes, particularly the use of shale and coal, typically involve the possibilities for increasing water demand, disposal of wastewater, and surface disturbances. These sociological occurrences have emphasized the need for scientific information and technological advancements for managing the concerns which energy producers and policy makers are faced with. Although regulations have been implemented in limiting the use of natural oil and gas resources due to perceptions that improper exploitation may lead to environmental damages, hydraulic fracturing is still widely carried out, consuming millions of gallons of water within each treatment. Large portions of water are also flown back and disposed (Kamenev, Munter, Pikkov, and Kekisheva 2003). Thus, the possibilities for future development with regards to the use of unconventional oil resources, such as shale, have increased the communities’ concerns toward the impact of such activities on water, land, and air resources. Environmental Impact of the Shale Oil and Gas Industry The impact of the oil shale industry, which produces shale gas, is prevalent across various aspects including air and water pollution, waste management, and land use as caused about by extracting and processing oil shale. Surface mining that is carried out for oil shale deposits is the primary cause associated with open-pit mining and its adverse effects on the environment (Kahru and Pollumaa 2006). Furthermore, thermal processing along with combustion produce waste material that should be carefully disposed of as well as hazardous atmospheric emissions, such as carbon dioxide that is considered a major greenhouse gas. Thus, these suggest the great potential of shale gas production for contributing to global warming. While carbon capture and storage technology can reduce such environmental concerns in the future, such ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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