StudentShare
Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Search
Go to advanced search...

COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Analyse and evaluate the role played by top-down factors in both visual and auditory misperceptions. Please refer to relevant empirical evidence in your answer. Top-down factors are considered very important in the cognitive psychology of perception. Top-down theories suggest that what is already in the mind (what people are thinking) greatly influence the way that something is perceived to that individual…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.8% of users find it useful
COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY"

Download file to see previous pages Of course, it is always possible that what is known can greatly influence the way something is perceived to such an extent that it becomes a misperception. Visual and auditory misperceptions have been studied widely in the literature, as they illustrate not only how something can be misperceived due to top-down factors but can shed some light on how perception relies on these factors also. A variety of empirical evidence will be used to evaluate the role that these top-down factors have in perception, focusing mainly on visual and auditory misperceptions. One of the most widely studied examples of the way that top-down factors have a role in misperceptions are illusions. Optical illusions are often used as fun examples of how the mind can trick us, but they also have a huge role in cognitive psychology. Illusions are good because they show how the mind follows certain rules and places certain constraints on perception, and how top-down factors cause the brain to have a bias towards perceiving certain things (Eysenck & Keane, 2005). In everyday life, these are usually correct and can help us to identify objects that have never been perceived before accurately and simply. Without these rules, there would be no perception in the sense we understand today. However, when these rules are applied in a different sense to that which they would usually be employed misperception or illusion results. Misperceptions can be found within all sensory systems, although visual and auditory are the most researched and understood. Sometimes, a healthy individual can briefly mistake one object that is known for another. The research by Summerfield, Egner, Mangels & Hirsch (2006) investigates the reaction of the brain during these occasions using functional magnetic resonance imaging to understand the neuroscience behind this. The interesting part of this research is that Summerfield et al (2006) manipulated images of houses and faces to such an extent that they could be realistically mistaken for the other. This may seem ridiculous, as houses and faces are two very different structures that could not easily be mistaken for each other in reality. This is an example of a top-down factor; we think that it would be impossible to mistake a house for a face (or vice versa) because of the rules and regulations put in place in the way that objects are perceived. However, this research showed that at a certain level of degradation, this misperception can easily occur. This misperception occurs even in psychologically normal patients. Top-down factors associate some areas of the image with a house or a face and the medio-frontal and right parietal regions of the brain make assumptions based upon what is already known and help the individual perceive. Faces themselves are also victim to visual misperception. Research by Leopold, Rhodes, Muller and Jeffery (2005) has shown that top-down factors can lead to perceived identity and expression. In this case, what is known about individuals that are familiar is applied to individuals that are not, and thus misperceptions occur. The brain here is suggesting that someone with similar visual appearance to an individual must be that individual. Again, this is an example ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/environmental-studies/1422533-cognitive-psychology
(COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 Words)
https://studentshare.org/environmental-studies/1422533-cognitive-psychology.
“COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/environmental-studies/1422533-cognitive-psychology.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

Cognitive Behavior Therapy and the Humanistic Approach

The cognitive perspective, on the other hand, has emerged from the behaviorist school of thought but takes into account the internal consciousness and mental perspective of individuals also as a part of the scientific basis for psychology. It emphasizes the value of the cognitive element and the thinking function of human beings as expressed in how we feel and what we do.

While behaviorism emerged during an era where mankind was turning to science to provide answers to natural phenomena, it has faced criticism for its premise of rejecting phenomena ascribed to the consciousness. According to Broad, “…behaviorism in particular….are instances of the numerous class of theories which are so preposterousl...
10 Pages(2500 words)Report

Psychology of Aging

Examining differential theory, the idea that emotions such as anger have a consistent basic effect upon the individual throughout the lifespan despite later complications of cognition, etc., indicates that identity, as it is experienced in old age, has a sense of consistency of self with the identity remembered of the child.  This deep-seated experience of emotion should be so ingrained as to preserve some sense of identity even in the Alzheimer’s patient who has lost autobiographical memory. Although the article does not go into detail regarding how these theories might intertwine, it seems that the description of differential theory as it progresses into adulthood matches fairly close to the concepts involved in socio...
14 Pages(3500 words)Assignment

Psychology of Learning for Instruction

Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget (1896- 1980) and Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) have developed their ideas and theories on cognitive development and psychology that bears a relationship, which is significantly similar, yet essentially different. It is in this context, that Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development assumes significance. Though Vygotsky and Piaget, agree on certain fundamental aspects of cognitive development, the framework and approach of their theories, differ essentially.
Before a comparative study of two theories could be done, an understanding of the basic tenets of each theory is vital. According to Piaget's theory (1970), cognitive development of an individual occurs through a number...
10 Pages(2500 words)Assignment

Coaches' Attitiudes Toward Sport Psychology Consultation

Attitudes towards sport psychology will influence whether or not an athlete will utilize and practice sport psychology skills (Greaser, 1992). Therefore, it is likely that coaches’ attitudes towards sport psychology will influence their decision whether or not to employ sport psychology services with their athletes. The sport psychology field needs to determine a way to break entry barriers with coaches to help them use sport psychology services with their teams and athletes.

Sport psychology consultants need to be sensitive to the individual characteristics of athletes and the sports in which they play to decrease help-seeking barriers and facilitate help-seeking behaviors (Martin, 2005). In turn, sport psycholog...
39 Pages(9750 words)Research Paper

Psychology: Substance Disorders

When a person hears or sees things that are not present, they are known as hallucinations. Hallucinations can be visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, proprioceptive and receptive. Delusions are pathological fixed false beliefs. When the person believes that other people (who actually exist) are reading his thoughts and plotting against him, the person is said to suffer from delusions. Heightened perception is said to be present when the person feels that his senses are flooded with all the sights and sounds that surround him. Disorganized thinking and speech are said to be present when the person can not think logically and speaks peculiarly. Loose associations, perseveration, and neologisms are all manifestations of disorganized...
7 Pages(1750 words)Assignment

Psychology: Development of Gender

The changing nature of gender roles in the 21st century is discussed and some practical examples of these changes being investigated. Then, it will critically analyze the role media plays in shaping human behavior. Lastly, the report will look at how gender roles are acquired through the observation of male and female social role models.

The awareness of who we are and whether we are female or male is an important aspect of human development. Some eminent psychologists have raised concerns about how we come to be identified as male or female. They ask, does the process of identification of who we are starts right from the moment the child is born? Or does she/he learn about its identity from the social environment in wh...
15 Pages(3750 words)Research Paper

Cognitive Psychology And Its Implications

Cognitive psychology attempts to understand the nature of human intelligence and how people think. The study of cognitive psychology is motivated by scientific curiosity, by the desire for practical applications, and by the need to provide a foundation for other fields of social science. (Anderson, 1990:3) Looking into the history of the world at large, it becomes evident that almost all human societies have been socially stratified from the most primitive Paleolithic and Neolithic ages to the most modern contemporary era of hi-technology and computerization. The social division of individuals is on the basis of caste, class, creed, clan, community, region, race, religion, gender, age, and socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic statu...
10 Pages(2500 words)Case Study

The Discourses of Psychology and History

Psychology as a field of discourse relies heavily on empirical evidence; being a social science, this empirical evidence is still subject to much subjective analysis. This is not to say that there is no room in chemistry for any sort of subjective analysis, but there is not nearly as much leeway as there would be in social science like psychology. This is the reason why there is such a contrasting difference in the way that theories are phrased in hard sciences and social sciences.

Concerning written assignments in psychology courses, there is a definite, approved approach that must be followed. Generally speaking, psychology paper assignments are not supposed to contain quotations from other papers; the findings of ano...
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay

Key Concepts of Counseling Psychology

Humans were born with the capacity to know and the freedom to choose between good and evil.  Given this freedom, we are responsible for our decisions, actions, and thoughts. Consequently, there is a need for therapy when an individual is unable or unwilling to accept personal responsibility for emotional problems.   We are not perfect therefore we make imperfect decisions. Therapy in this integrative approach attempts to get the client to live at peace with themselves in spite of mistakes. However, the level of peace depends on the extent to which one allows the environment to influence one’s inner world. Individuals, therefore, have the capability to improve themselves. Nonetheless, we have the tendency to develop...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

The Theories of Kant and Plato

... Introduction In the second part of the Prolegomena, how does Kant describe the workings of the understanding? What is the role of the understanding, in other words? Immanuel Kant is one of the successful modern philosophers who attempted to reconstruct the fundamentals of philosophy and succeeded to a considerable extent. His remarkable criticisms on the theories of metaphysics were encapsulated and summarized in Prolegomena; it sets forth a specific problem that is resolved with an extensive feasible argument. In the second part of Prolegomena Kant has asked questions on the purity of ‘natural scientific cognition’ which refers to the knowledge of laws based on the natural universal science like “that everything that happens always...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

Cognitive and Social Characteristics of Selected Creative Persons

The disciplines of cognitive and personality psychologies are fields that emphasize the uniqueness of an individual in terms of behavior and ideas. While the core essence of a creative person is to think of unique ideas and engage in unique behavior, personality psychology studies what makes such gifted people unique and possess such individual differences from the rest of the population. As such, both disciplines are essential in studying a gifted person by focusing on the stability and consistency of people, with a view of determining the presence or absence of uniqueness. It is thus normal that the field of personality psychology undertakes to focus its attention on a section of the population whose salient traits are their uni...
8 Pages(2000 words)Assignment
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY for FREE!

Contact Us