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Gastrointestinal Cancer - Term Paper Example

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GASTROINTESTINAL CANCER Author Institute Abstract The gastrointestinal system is an important system of the human body which is essential for the performance of normal bodily functions. Cancer can arise in the different parts of the gastrointestinal system which include the esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, gall bladder cancer, pancreatic cancer, colon cancer and anal cancer…
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Gastrointestinal Cancer
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Download file to see previous pages Helicobacter pylori are infective organisms which have been linked with the gastric cancer. Colorectal cancer is associated with genetic mutations as well low fibre diets and diets which lack essential vitamins. Gastrointestinal Cancer Cancer is uncontrolled and abnormal growth of a tissue destroying the adjacent tissues also. Sometimes the cancer metastasize which means the spread of cancerous cells from one part of the body to other part of the body through blood or lymph fluid. These properties of cancer make it more dangerous than benign tumours because benign tumours do not attack the nearby tissue and thus do not destroy them and benign tumours do not metastasize. Cancer cells have self sufficiency in growth, self replicative, insensitive to antigrowth signals and avoid apoptosis. Gastrointestinal system is a complex system which breaks and digests the ingested food mechanically and with the help of enzymes. Cancer can occur in gastrointestinal system too like esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, gall bladder cancer, pancreatic cancer, colon cancer and anal cancer. Esophageal cancer is condition in which the cells of esophagus start reproducing abnormally in uncontrolled way which destroys the esophagus. The cancer in esophagus mostly occurs in epithelial cells which lines the surface of esophagus. There are two types of esophageal cancer: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The squamous cell carcinoma mostly occurs in those populations which excessively consume alcohol, tobacco and hot tea. Adenocarcinoma is that cancer of esophagus which occurs in higher socioeconomic class, or in population with obesity and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Generally squamous cell carcinoma occurs due to the irritation in esophageal squamous epithelium. The risk factors for the development of squamous cell carcinoma are tobacco, alcohol, high starch and low fibres diet, achalasia and a few more. Excessive tobacco use is can cause esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. If a person smoke cigarette or use smokeless tobacco products the effect of tobacco causing squamous cell carcinoma remain the same. Chronic alcohol use is also cause of development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The quitting of use of tobacco and alcohol decrease the risk of development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Unbalance diet is also increase the risk of development of squamous cell carcinoma. Diet rich in starch and having low quantity of fibres aid in development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma occurs in patient with previous achalasia. Chronic irritants of the esophagus, Plummer-vinson syndrome increase the risk of squamous cell carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma occurs in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrette’s disease history. Barrette’s disease is the metaplasia of epithelial cells of esophagus. Metaplasia is the reversible change of cells which are replaced by another type of adult cells. In Barrette’s disease normal stratified squamous epithelium of distal esophagus is replaced by coloumnar epithelium containing goblet cells. The development of adenocarcinoma from Barrette’s esophagus is a long process which takes years to occur. The degree at which change in the cells occurs is responsible for development of ...Download file to see next pages Read More
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