(GIS) Geographical Information System - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Geographical Information System (GIS) The main components of GIS are hardware, software, methods, people and data. Data refers to raw geographic information which could be collected in house, compiled to custom specification or obtained them from a commercial data provider…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.6% of users find it useful
(GIS) Geographical Information System
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "(GIS) Geographical Information System"

Download file to see previous pages The hardware component of GIS is the central processing unit (CPU) or computer. It also includes a digitizer scanner whose function is to change data for example those found in maps into digital form then send the converted data to the CPU. There are also a tape device whose function is to store programs or data on magnetic tap, and a display device which is used to display data that has been processed. People as a component of GIS include end users and specialists whose function is to design the GIS for the end users. Methods refer to those procedures or techniques used data collection or processing. The functional elements of GIS are data manipulation, data input and output, data retrieval and display, data analysis and modelling and data management. Data input refers to incorporating data into the GIS whereas data output refers to removing data or information from the GIS. Data analysis and modelling involves obtaining an understanding of relationships in the data collected and developing a model of the spatial phenomena. Data retrieval entails taking out data from a stored format for use whereas data display is the showing off of the derived or primary data (Delaney and Niel 2006). In GIS, spatial data represent features that are location-specific or geographic in nature. They include cell location like column and raw, and coordinates like longitudes and latitudes. On the other hand, attribute data give a description of feature in a specific location and they can be in numbers or text strings. Unlike spatial data, attribute data can be measured in ratio, ordinal, interval and nominal ratios. According to Delaney and Niel (2006), topology creates an awareness of the surrounding for the GIS by developing a spatial data relationship. It links spatial and attribute data to give information on what surrounds a feature. When representing continuous and discrete geographic features, vector data structure uses points, polygons and lines whereas raster data structure make tessellation on the representation surface through a repeated use of a square cell or a pixel. However, raster data structures are better at representing a continuous surface. Vector data structure support typology better and are more accurate in representing geographic features compared to raster data structure. Generally, raster data structure requires has a lower processing power requirement compared to vector data structure. On-screen digitising, converting, importing and geo-locating/geo-rectification are the four common methods of incorporating digital data into a GIS. On-screen digitising involves locating features from digital sources for example satellite or scanned images using a computer mouse. Attribute data is entered through computer keyboard. Geo-locating is used to input non-geographic/non-georeferenced data into GIS because it converts spatial data into geographic data. Converting is done if GIS data is in a format that cannot be used by certain software. Importing involves obtaining data from other sources like geo-coded textual data, satellite images or digital aerial photographs into the GIS. There exist differences in cost, effort, time, and editing requirements between on-screen digitising, converting, importing and geo-locating/geo-rectification, scanning and vectorisation, table digitizing and keyboard entry as data input methods. Both importing and converting are fast, cheaper, need less efforts and have less editing requireme ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“(GIS) Geographical Information System Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/environmental-studies/1414686-gis-geographical-information-system
((GIS) Geographical Information System Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 Words)
“(GIS) Geographical Information System Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/environmental-studies/1414686-gis-geographical-information-system.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF (GIS) Geographical Information System

Geographical Information

.... This means that data will be available to all users provided they have access to the internet. All data and modules for analysis will be available on the servers of the network. The end user will be able to easily access data on demand, and the data will be readily available to the user through this Distributed GIS. Influence of using technology on the future of geographical information would enhance availability of large amount of data through safer flash technology as back up storage. Flash technologies would facilitate huge data applications that require new systems to pre-fetch available data from a flash. Use of technologies would influence the use of data in...
7 Pages(1750 words)Coursework

Geographical information systems

... of the key elements in the new armory is the geographical information system (GIS). The problems concerned can be broadly described as 'environmental management problems'. Examples of environmental management problems range from those of global scale (climate change, ozone depletion), through international scale (atmospheric transportation of radiation and pollutants), to regional and local scales (river pollution, sitting of potentially hazardous facilities) (Wyatt, 1995). What they have in common is that they are all concerned with spatially distributed phenomena. This means that the information relating to the phenomena can be spatially referenced and an appropriately chosen GIS is now the natural means to support and analyze... for...
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay

Technology and Criminal Justice

...Technology and crime: Introduction: Technology advancement can be associated with improved living standards and also ease to perform activities. however the advancement in technology has contributed to ease of crime detection and bringing offenders into justice. Advancement in technology has also contributed to the increased crime and difficult in detecting crime and solving crime. Technology that aid in solving crimes include DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid) and GIS (geographical information system), this new technology have helped solve crimes that previously were not easy to solve or even unsolvable using traditional methods, therefore the advancement in technology has...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Geographical Information System

...Geographical information system, Grid-cell GIS project Arcview. of Browns Pond This paper encompasses a discussion based on analyzing grid-celldata with the ArcView GIS. During the course of the discussion the best location for an outdoor business will be identified. The paper will define and solve the problems that would arise when finding a beginners ski school using this technique. Geographical Information System (GIS) is an information system that is designed particularly for the purpose of management of spatial (or geographical)...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper

Geographical Information System: GIS

.... This is done through a variety of different methods, with the most common in geographical circles being GIS, which stands for Geographical Information System. What this system does is plot points on maps that will measure its geographical makeup, whether that be elevation, distance, or any other differences from the norm. This can also be used to analyse geostatistics and to apply research to them. Currently, this spatial analysis is done by using computers, since there are so many statistics and modern GIS are powerful enough to handle this kind of output. Data Modeling Data modeling is a manner in...
15 Pages(3750 words)Essay

Geographical Information Systems

...GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS Geographical Information Systems {GIS} have revolutionized the pattern of reactions of local, and federal government agencies in the United States to sudden crisis, criminal or destructive events (Brown et al.). GIS is an instrumentality that unites interrelated interacting artifacts designed to work as a coherent entity. The artifacts, comprising computer hardware, computer software and geographic data, work to record, administer, evaluate and visually reveal geographically referenced data. GIS unites data from many sources {such as pictures and geographical diagrams}, connects the data to a geographic position and shows it visually as illustrated below (Rentenaar et al.). Components... of...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Cognitive and Physical Changes

3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper

Geographical Information System (GIS) in Qatar

...support from highest government levels 2. Making concerned officials and agencies privy to the power and potential ascribed to GIS. 3. Encourage government departments to coordinate and share data 4. Involving all government departments in designing and implementing the system. 5. Establishing training and education programs, and availing GIS tools to everybody. Benefits of Qatar’s GISGeographic information that is readily available in the desired format has resulted in more effective planning frameworks and better governmental activity coordination, hence reducing costs and saving time, in addition to nurturing high levels of...
15 Pages(3750 words)Essay


...Insert of GIS applications in civil engineering Q1: Geographic Information Systems (GIS) I an emerging technology with increasing range of applications in spatial data analysis and integrations. The use of GIS has been of great importance in aiding decision making at various levels. One of the areas where the tool has been used is in physical planning and analysis. Various GIS software has been developed to help in modeling landscapes and allocation of various factors of development through spatial organization. As a specialist in GIS, I can use the application in many different but beneficial ways to help spur the development and help restore the crude spatial organization that has taken root in the city and beyond her borders... . The...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Geographical information system and agriculture

... Geographical information system and land development A Geographic Information System, GIS, is a computerized designed system designed to store, capture, manipulate, scrutinize, retrieve, handle, and present all kinds of spatial or geographical data (Pierce and David, 1).GIS, Data encapsulated and used in them are represented on other hard-copy maps or paper. A GIS varies from other graphics systems in several respects and that is what distinguishes it. To start with, data are georeferenced to the coordinates of a given projection system. This consent to precise placement of elements on the earths surface as well as maintaining the spatial link between mapped features. In the long run, commonly referenced data can be superimposed... to...
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic (GIS) Geographical Information System for FREE!

Contact Us