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Nursing Children and Childbearing Families - Essay Example

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Child Bearing and Rearing Practices Question 1 a) It is recommended not to drink at all during pregnancy (NICE guidelines), especially during the first trimester when organ formation and rapid cell division is occurring. Previously, there were some reports that 1-2 units, not more than 2 times a week is safe in pregnancy…
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Download file to see previous pages It can also lead to abortion and still birth (RCOG, 2008). b) Folate supplementation prior to conception reduces the risk of neural tube defects like spina bifida. It is recommended to take this B-group vitamin, much before conception to third month of pregnancy. Seven out of ten cases of neural tube defects can be prevented by taking folate supplementation. It important to take folate before conception because neural tube formation occurs during initial weeks when pregnancy is most often not confirmed. The recommended dose for supplementation is 400 micrograms per day (RCOG, 2009). Question 2. a) Breast feeding has several advantages to the baby and the mother. Advantages to mother include decreased risk of certain diseases like osteoporosis and cancers, faster return of uterus to prepregnancy state, natural contraception and psychological sense of confidence as the mother provides completed nourishment for her baby. For the baby, the benefits include complete nutrition that is easily digestible, safe, warm and palatable, protection from infectious diseases because of presence of antibodies in the milk especially in the colostrum, enhancing of mother-child bonding and attachment and decrease in the risk of atopic dermatitis, asthma and other chronic illnesses. b) Breast feeding protects the babies from developing allergies. The main immune factor that is responsible for the benefits is a substance called secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) that's present in large amounts in colostrum. Babies fed on cow's milk or soy milk or even other formula feeds tend to have increased risk of allergies. The IgA forms a protective layer on the intestinal wass preventing undigested proteins from causing allergic reactions. Another important characteristic of breast milk that helps the baby is that it enhances cognitive development in infant because of breast-feeding, prolonged skin contact, the reduction in maternal stress with feeding, and the improved mother-infant interaction. Breast milk also has some brain growth factors which help in the growth of brain and development of intelligent skills (WHO, 2011). Question 3. a) Positive effects of early discharge include recovery of mother and child in a familiar atmosphere of home, decreased risk of iatrogenic infections and decreased health care costs (NICE, 2007). Negative effects include increased risk of readmission due to feeding problems, unopened bowels, reflux-related problems and neonatal jaundice and increased risk of mortality due to choking episodes and other illnesses like viral illness (NICE, 2007). b) Recovery in a familiar home environment decreases stress for the mother and also family members because of increased availability of resources and comfort at home. In the hospital, the child and mother can contract infections from other patients and this can increase the duration of hospital stay and health care costs. Feeding is not established until third or fourth day after delivery and feeding problems can be stressful both for the mother and the baby and can in turn lead to decreased milk production. This becomes a vicious cycle. Improper feeding techniques can cause choking in the baby or even hypoglycemic episodes. Presence in the hospital allows health professionals help the mother and tackle any complications immediately. Exaggerated physiological jaundice and jaundice due to ABO incompatibility are more often detected on the third or fourth da ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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