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Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini - Term Paper Example

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How was Mussolini able to take advantage of the social conditions that existed in Italy in order to attain power? …
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Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini
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Download file to see previous pages He was called by the title of II Duce by 1925 and after 1936 his official title was “His Excellency Benito Mussolini, Head of Government, Duce of Fascism, and Founder of the Empire.” He was also the top rank of military, First Marshal of the Empire besides the King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, created by Mussolini himself, which offered him as well as the King joint highest control over the military of Italy. 1 Although initially Mussolini denounced war by writing in an article named “Down with the war. We remain neutral” but he found an opportunity in war for himself, his political ambitions and those of his countrymen. Mussolini was impressed by anti-Austrian Italian nationalist feelings thinking that the war could liberate Italians in 1 Austria-Hungary from the rule of Habsburgs. He raised his voice supporting socialists to win over the autocratic rulers in Germany and Austria-Hungary who were against socialism as per Mussolini. 2 A discussion on Mussolini is incomplete without analyzing the ideology he was committed to. Fascism and Mussolini seem to be the two sides of the same coin. Fascism was like a big river with a number of tributaries assimilating such as Nationalism, Futurism, and Syndicalism. Other than being a practical experiment in government, fascism inculcated a theory and a philosophy, and to an extent an art, a mysticism and a religion. As announced Mussolini, “Fascism has a doctrine, or, if you will, a philosophy with regard to all the questions which beset the human mind today,” adding further, “We play upon every chord of the lyre, from violence to religion, from art to politics.” ...
y chord of the lyre, from violence to religion, from art to politics.” 3 The start of fascism was not grand as Mussolini himself formed the first Fascio di Combattimento in March, 1919, which erupted in the coming into being of the National Fascist party in November, 1921. The sensational march on Rome, which positioned the party safely in power, happened on 22 October. Fascism took a defensive posture with the murder of Matteotti in May1924 but from which it emerged strong. It has not since then seen backward; it went ahead with its creative program resulting in the great Labor Charter of April 1927, the most happening thing. 3 The inner reality of fascism did not match with the outward projections, as proletarian changed to bourgeois, and radical changed to conservative. Sedition turned to loyalty; left changed to right. The only thing that did not change was Mussolini. That’s why Mussolini has been blamed by opponents of being the arch-turncoat of history. He outsmarted all others in his cheating to attain popular liberty. No one can deny that at one point of time Mussolini was a socialist, a republican, an atheist who overturned government but later became averse to all these. Mussolini once stood against all that was constitutional turned to become Authority incarnate. Even he rid himself off from pacifism and feminism. Such volte-face was Mussolini. It is said that overambitious nature of Mussolini was responsible for the ever-changing attire of thought leadership that Mussolini went on acquiring and relieving with. Supporters of Mussolini saw in him a political personality rich in creative thoughts that directed the course of happenings. Taking a decision in favor or against this blame on Mussolini making volte-face on ideologies without analyzing the events ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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