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Nursing Children and Childbearing Families - Essay Example

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Nursing Children and Childbearing Families Q1a: Four known teratogens include alcohol, cocaine, isotretinoin and infections occurring during pregnancy such as TORCH (Toxoplasmosis, varicella, parvovirus, rubella, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and herpes viruses) (Postlethwaite, 2003)…
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Nursing Children and Childbearing Families
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Download file to see previous pages Q1d: The use of folic acid during pregnancy can help reduce the risk of developing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the baby by 75% (Atrash, Johnson, Adams, Cordero, & Howse, 2006). Since NTDs occur between the 20th to 28th day after conception, and it takes time for adequate stores of folic acid to build up in the body and a large proportion of pregnancies are unplanned, folic acid supplementation should begin atleast 4 weeks prior to a planned pregnancy (Iqbal, 2000; Jaquier, 2007; Czeizel & Dudas, 1992). Q2a: Some important functions of the placenta include gaseous exchange, excretion, provision of nutrients and metabolic substrates for the fetus and endocrine functions, i.e. production and secretion of several hormones (Benirschke & Kaufmann, 2000). Q2b: One of the most important functions of the human placenta is gaseous exchange, i.e. to serve as the lungs for the fetus. The placenta transfers oxygen-rich blood from the mother to the fetus and returns blood high in carbondioxide and other gases back to the mother’s body where it can be re-oxygenated via the mother’s lungs. ...
The placenta also facilitates the transfer of all nutrient substances from the maternal body to the fetus which are required during growth and development (Benirschke & Kaufmann, 2000). Lastly, the placenta is involved in the production and secretion of several hormones such as hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), hPL (human placental lactogen) and placental GH (growth hormone), all of which are required not only for the sustained maintenance of the placenta but also to provide the required stimuli for the growth and maturation of different organ systems within the fetus (Guibourdenche, Fournier, Malassine, & Evain-Brion, 2009). Q3a: For the newborn, breast milk is the source of all the essential nutrients required for the optimal growth and nutrition, including proteins, carbohydrates and fats (Henderson & Scobbie, 2006). Moreover, all these nutrients are present in the correct proportions and quantities needed for the baby during different stages of growth and development as the composition of breast milk changes over time. Breastfeeding also confers protection against a variety of infectious diseases such as diarrhea, respiratory infections, otitis media and urinary tract infections (Henderson & Scobbie, 2006). Breastfeeding is advantageous for the mother too. It has been found to help in the involution of the uterus post-delivery via stimulating oxytocin medicated uterine contractions (Henderson & Scobbie, 2006). It also acts as a natural contraceptive, helping to increase child spacing via causing lactational amenorrhea. From a psychological perspective, breastfeeding has been shown to decrease the levels of anxiety in the mother and ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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