Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...
Nobody downloaded yet

Commonsense Reasoning in and over Natural Language - Literature review Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
This paper "Commonsense Reasoning in and over Natural Language" discusses limitations involved in the creation and execution of formal theories in the quantification of natural language. There would also be a great many who would willingly discuss the consideration of quantifiers…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.9% of users find it useful
Commonsense Reasoning in and over Natural Language
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Commonsense Reasoning in and over Natural Language"

Download file to see previous pages The theories and theorems that are involved in quantifying language fail to provide us a limitless and potentially useable formula for quantification regardless of their complexity and their rationale supporting it.

Jon Barwise and John Etchemendy in Language Proof and Logic give a very understandable argument as to the reasons for quantifiers and the reasons they are not always accurate in their use. A very pertinent consideration for their argument starts out their ninth chapter in Language Proof and Logic by saying, “In English and other natural languages, basic sentences are made by combining noun phrases and verb phrases.” (1. Chapter 9 page 227, Language Proof and Logic.) The consideration continues further in that Barwise and Etchemendy contend that “Quantification takes us out of the realm of truth-functional connectives.” (2. Chapter 9 page 227, Language Proof and Logic.)

This gives us a reason for the consideration that quantifiers are not always the most useful method for determining natural language tendencies. Quantifiers, according to Barwise and Etchemendy, have a tendency to dull the truthfulness of sentences giving them a generalization that may not bear an ounce of truth within them.
In the case of first-order logic, the process assumes that there would be an infinite list of variables so there would be no possible way to run out of these variables, regardless of a sentence’s complexity. Theorists like Fitch would understand all of these separate variables involved, of which there are many, but others like Tarski’s World would not, in that Tarski’s World uses six in place of infinite variables as Fitch would manage. This would in fact present a rather expressive limitation in Tarski’s World of language use. Expanding the set of terms of language usually means adding variables to it. At this point, only individual consonants, also known as names would be considered the sole amount of basic terms. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(Commonsense Reasoning in and over Natural Language Literature review, n.d.)
Commonsense Reasoning in and over Natural Language Literature review.
(Commonsense Reasoning in and over Natural Language Literature Review)
Commonsense Reasoning in and over Natural Language Literature Review.
“Commonsense Reasoning in and over Natural Language Literature Review”.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Commonsense Reasoning in and over Natural Language

Deductive Reasoning and Inductive Reasoning

... of children by 60 archdiocesan priests in 2005.However, church’s cover up stopped the investigation and thus, prosecution of predators. Grand jury is again horrified at the number of rapes and lamenting over the limitations of statute and church’s loyalty with predators. Now, the jury has implored church’s current leadership to cooperate in investigation and introduce reforms in the system. Writer also urges the suspension of statute of limitation for investigation and justice. Argument evaluation The opinion is developed using inductive reasoning since it is making a prediction based on premises. It gives a generalized conclusion (2) that we fear it has a long way to go. Conclusion (2) is supported by (1) The Roman Catholic hierarchy...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Associational reasoning

... in the Alexandrian Library the world itself will become a computer from which books and texts could be sought. He had indirectly spoken about the internet at a time it was unknown to the world (Mcluhan). Even Ong’s works has also been similar to Mcluhan’s, drawing the relations between media and the society in unconventional ways. Ong’s ideas had been successfully used to analyze feminist languages. His theories have been used to understand urban graffiti as well. Although both Marshall and Ong has been appraised a lot for their work, their work have also been labeled as technological determinists. In other words, critics claim that their way of thinking that is, through associational reasoning, mainly states that changes in technology...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Natural Language Processing

... in AI maintain a keen interest in advancements within the general field of linguistics, as their goal is to equip computers with a comparable sense of the linguistic knowledge and ability we humans innately have, such as grammaticality, phrase structure, government and binding and so on. Critics of AI, on the other hand, argue that computers are incapable of achieving the level of cognitive ability that humans exhibit. In order to process language as well as a human, an AI (artificial intelligence) system must have the ability both to understand and to generate language. Natural language generation requires that the AI system determine a reasonable response, organise its structure, form comprehensible and natural-sounding sentences...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Inductive Reasoning

...Running Head: representation f information Evaluate research on the nature of the representation of information and how it significantly impacts thinking in inductive reasoning [Name of the writer] [Name of the institution] Evaluate research on the nature of the representation of information and how it significantly impacts thinking in inductive reasoning Psychological studies f formal reasoning have fallen largely into two domains: deductive reasoning and statistical inference. These two endeavours have much in common and some researchers work in both areas. In both cases, participants are presented with what problem-solving researchers call well-defined problems. A well-defined problem can be solved by use f the information...
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay

How Language Transpires over Time

...How Language Transpires over Time of In a 1986 essay en d The Meanings of a Word, Gloria Naylor s, "Words themselves are innocuous; it is the consensus that gives them true power" (Naylor, 251). Words in themselves are meaningless; they are simply a collection of spoken sounds or written symbols that members of a society develop in order to communicate with one another. Words are nothing and mean nothing until we give them that meaning and it is for this reason that word meanings shift and change over time, for meanings change as societies and cultures change. In The Meanings of a Word, Naylor talks of how words can wound or empower, and how, in fact, the same word can have either effect when used by different people for different...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Quantitative Reasoning

...Quantitative Reasoning Table of Contents Descriptive Analysis 3 Central Tendency 3 Measures of Dispersion 3 Bivariate Correlation Coefficient 4 Two-sample Student’s t-test 5 References 8 Cohen, J. (2003) Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd Edition). London, UK: Routledge. 8 Gravetter, F. J. & Wallnau, L. B. (2009) Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences. USA: Cengage. 8 Healey, J. F. (2009) The Essentials of Statistics: A Tool for Social Research. USA: Cengage. 8 Healey, J. F. & Prus, S. G. (2009) Statistics: A Tool for Social Research. USA: Cengage. 8 Reinard, J. C. (2006) Communication research statistics. London, UK: Sage. 8 Woodbury, G. (2001) An Introduction to Statistics. USA: Cengage. 8...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Moral Reasoning: Natural Law Theory and Virtue Ethics

... deed to make one’s life better in a way to relieve the pain and suffering. Sullivan and Pecorino say that human have reasoning. Human beings are rational individuals, in that light, people can define the natural laws and these laws will guide them in their actions. John Doe, for example, drinks medicines to relieve him from pain, but taking too much of it is dangerous or even fatal. The act of taking too much medicine is against the natural law. The drug addicted persons in the rehabilitation center were doing morally wrong for taking prohibited drugs. Taking too much drug is an unnatural act, but this could not be judged as morally right because the result is obviously bad. It’s not about stopping the pain and suffering – it prolongs...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Diagnostic Reasoning

... Diagnostic Reasoning Medical decision-making models focus on analytical reasoning. In order to come up with superior diagnostic and curative decisions, the models utilize Bayes’ theorem, thresholds and decision trees. These arithmetical models integrate medical epidemiological data. They are also associated with evidence-based medicine and standard for superior practice. The conclusive statement made in the article that medical decision-making doctors have to establish a balance between diagnostic reasoning and a kind of intuitive appraisal is true. The use of diagnostic methods alone does not always guarantee the expected results. Even though clinicians can use data from patient’s signs and symptoms to improve previous probabilities...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Global legal realism as commonsense

rd, it is worth noting that the Western legal system largely emanated from the canon and Roman Laws, some of which are inconsistent with the global legal realism of the contemporary world. Besides, the Western academic legal culture addresses the theory of morals from a positivist, state-oriented, unempirical, secular, and Universalist approach. Evidently, Western legal education, culture, and systems are too liberal to form the core of comparative literature and law (Bermann, Glenn, Scheppele, Shalakany, Snyder, & Zoller 2011, pp. 935-968). This paper takes a critical view of comparative law and literature as it relates to the Western legal systems and the comparative impact of Western legal systems on legal realism from a global...
10 Pages(2500 words)Assignment

Critical reasoning

...Critical Reasoning: Logic Part 1. An argument with true premises and true conclusion that is valid. First Premise: All normal human beings are rational. Second Premise: Peter is a normal human being. Conclusion: Peter, therefore, is rational. 2. An argument with false premises, and true conclusion that is valid. First Premise: All the animals that belong to the family of cats are carnivorous Second Premise: snakes belong to the family of cats Conclusion: Therefore, snakes are carnivorous. 3. An argument with false premises, true conclusion and is invalid. First Premise: all the current football stars in the world are Chinese Second Premise: Lionel Messi is an American Conclusion: Lionel Messi, therefore, is a football star. Part 2 (I...
2 Pages(500 words)Coursework
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Literature review on topic Commonsense Reasoning in and over Natural Language for FREE!

Contact Us