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Your company wants the redesign to have a solar cell array, an electrolyte and fuel cells. The pumping station as stored water in the tank that is supported by a…
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of New Haven Tagliatela College of Engineering November 18, 2014
From: Abdullah Alattas
To: Professor Eric
Re: Design for Renewable Energy System
We have been hired from your Company to redesign the energy system to deliver water to a remote town in Nepal, India. Your company wants the redesign to have a solar cell array, an electrolyte and fuel cells. The pumping station as stored water in the tank that is supported by a base elevated 40 ft. from the ground. The water in the pumping station provides the town in Nepal with a population of 15,000 people and assumes that each person uses 50 liters of water per day. The capacity of the reservoir tank will be enough to store water for a three days’ supply of water. The pumping station will be self-sufficient and require no external power to pump the water to the reservoir tank.
HOW FUEL CELLS WORK:
Fuel Cell is a system that can transfer the chemical energy to electrical energy. That means to convert the reaction between hydrogen and oxygen to get electricity. These processes do not produce any air pollution.
Hydrogen:
Hydrogen gas helps a lot in the pump station, because it can produce energy by reacting in fuel cell with oxygen to produce electricity. It acts as a basic material in this Remote Pumping Station System Project because it can generate power.
Solar Panel:
Solar Panel contains cells that cover the surface of the reservoir tank; these cells absorb sunlight and convert it to energy or electrical energy.
Overview of Diagrams/System:
The overview of diagrams is used to show the connection between the system and the components by attached figures.
The hierarchical diagram (Figure 2 in Attachment) shows the basic parts and the sublevel of the Remote Pumping Station System.
The context diagram (Figure 3 in Attachment) gives the necessary information that we need to calculate to redesign the project. This diagram makes it easier to find out which formula we are going to use in calculations.
The functional flow diagram (Figure 4 in Attachment) explains the process and steps for either the general subject or specific subject.
Experiments Conducted:
From the experiments, we were gathering data that helped us to find out the measurements of the elements of the system.
Experiment 1 (Table1 in Attachment) was to determine the angle of the solar panel. We used the load measurement box of the rotary switch. We set the protractor handout at angel 0. Then we adjusted the solar to the lamp. We had to consider the distance between the solar and the lamp like 50 cm. After that, we wrote down the current (A) in CW (+) and CCW (-) in different angles between 0 and 90 by turning the solar.
Experiment 2 (Table 2 in Attachment) we were able to measure the amount of hydrogen created by the electrolyte. We observed the level of hydrogen created, after each 2 ml increment on the cylinder; we wrote down the time it took to reach this increment with the current and voltage. We continued writing down the time until 10 ml of hydrogen was produced.
Experiment 3(Table 3 in Attachment) was to determine the fuel cell consumption efficiency. This experiment looked like experiment 2, both of them done by creating hydrogen. When hydrogen had reached 10 ml, the light source turned off. In this time, their would be the electrolyzer storage gas in the storage cylinder.
Calculation:
We used several formulas to get the right data for this project. The first calculation was the water demand equals 2,250,000 liters and equals 2,250 meter cube, the water supply for 15000 people in three days and 50 liters per person per day in Nepal. We multiplied the number of people, days and litters per person per day. Then we assumed height of the tank to get the diameter of the tank that equal 13.82 meters. We calculated the mass of water by multiplying the density of water as we knew 1000 kilograms per meter cube, by water demand that equal 2,250 meters per cube, so we got 2,250,000 kilograms. Also, we calculated potential energy by adding assumed height of the tank with a base elevation of the tank then multiplied the result with mass of water and gravity. We wanted to calculate the pump water power by multiplying 3600, water capacity days by 12 then divided it by potential energy to get 4,631 watts. Also, we needed to know the real power from fuel cell to life water by dividing pump water power over the assumed pump efficiency we got 9,262 watts. We found out the power that is used by one pump by multiplying assumption voltage rating of pump and assumption of maximum current from a single pump; we got 4,800 watts. After all these calculations we needed to know the hydrogen rate requirement for fuel cell by multiplying real power from fuel cell and consumption rate from experiment 3, we got 904,554 mL H2/min. We calculate the power needed by the electrolyzer by multiplying hydrogen rate requirement for fuel cell and hydrogen production from the electrolyzer from experiment 2; we got 23,866 watts. To calculate the area of solar panels, we multiplied conversion efficiency for solar panels. Which we had as a given solar incident energy and angular efficiency of solar panels from experiment 1 then divided them by power needed by electrolyzer we got 145.97 m2.
Conclusion:
The rainy or cloudy days are considered important factors in this project. In this weather, their will be no sunlight to provide a system. So there should be an independent backup generator to produce water in remote pumping station system. In this project we had new experiences such as doing complicated calculations in Excel. Read More
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