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According to these researchers, other types of circumstantial evidence, such as fingerprints or DNA, are more reliable in identifying criminals. This essay argues that eyewitness identification is not only can get the murder, but also it has unreliable.
The heart of the American criminal justice system is the honesty and reliability of eyewitnesses. The testimony of eyewitnesses can very much influence the decision of the judge or the members of jury. The jury tries to identify the reliability or honesty of the eyewitness secretly, without telling the basis of its final decision. Considering the weakness of the human memory, therefore, is very crucial to the criminal and legal justice system, because a lot of trials are focused on honest identifications (Wise et al. 2). Reaching a fair decision and a right identification is hard without the chance that eyewitnesses may not know wrongness in their identification or testimony.
Without strong physical evidence, testimony of eyewitnesses is important every time prosecution tries to prove that the criminal and the defendant are the same. The correctness of an eyewitness testimony or identification is shaped by two types of variables, which are ‘estimator’ and ‘system’ (Cutler & Kovera 54). System variables are things that the criminal justice system can control, like directions taught to eyewitnesses before they go into a lineup. Estimator variables, on the other hand, are things that the criminal justice system cannot control and their effects can be studied. These variables could be the lightning in the place where the crime took place, how long the eyewitnesses saw the face of the criminal, and so on (Cutler & Kovera 54).
But, still, eyewitnesses cannot be sure that their memory is right. Researchers say that weaknesses of the human memory negatively affect the truth of eyewitness testimony. Human memory is very hard to understand and study. Eyewitnesses can have a
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This paper analyzes the three stages of a criminal trial to illustrate how each phase ensures that evidence ultimately presented withstands or fails to withstand the rigor of presentation. Therefore this paper is divided into three parts: examination-in-chief; cross-examination and re-examination.
As such, certain protections therefore exist for individuals that are discriminated against for the reasons that are listed above. As with any laws associated with discrimination, the text of the directive espouses protections for various groups that may become endangered by actions taken both at a private and public level with the intention to curtail the rights and freedoms of the given group.
The purpose of the study done by Fahsing (2004) is to understand how the presence of increased number of offenders can create confusion in the mind of the eye witness as it can interfere with the description of single one offender to the other.
In particular, the close agreement of Matthew and Luke with Mark, and, where they differ with Mark, with each other, establishes some sort of dependency among them, hence they are called the Synoptic Gospels, while John has a far more independent tradition (Farmer 1964; Koester 1990; Nickle 2001).
As children age and their cognitive faculties develop, their ability to accurately recall their experiences increases. Great caution must be taken, however, in interviewing children after a considerable amount of time has passed. Leading questions can interfere with children's accurate representations of events in the distant past.
Other influences include the court's prior and present view of children as witness in comparison to adults in reference to competence, credibility and trustworthiness. Proper procedures in the pursuit of gathering eyewitness evidence can in fact be aided by procedures utilized in the process if police utilize a specific framework to manage.
The film is an indictment of the trial-by-jury system and reveals how personal prejudices, biases and indifference almost results in a miscarriage of justice. The notable aspect about this film is the skilful communicative ability of the single
John’s is an interesting book, and some inner transformation is possible with the one who reads it. Its contents are impactful. It is written for a mass audience, where the divinity of Jesus in the garb of human being, is
There appears to be classes, the new people are least. The families sit down and wait to be given houses. I hear that a family has committed suicide by taking poison.
They soon get huts, and the bell rings to signal meal time. A long
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