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One of the ways is by the use of the five pillars of racist thought. Of the five, the one that I find as most common is the claim that “races have genetically determined differences in athletic and musical ability” (p. 14). The reason this is said to be the most common is that there seem to be a lot of real life experiences and facts that seem to justify this position. In terms of athletics for example, it is common knowledge that most Olympic Games 100 meter gold medalists that the U.S. has produced in both men and women categories are Blacks.
The same can be made for great players and sports personalities like Pele of Brazil for soccer, Michael Jordan for basketball, Serena Sisters for tennis, Tiger Woods for gold, Mohammed Ali for boxing, and several others. Speak of music and the list will continue from Michael Jackson to Beyonce, all of who are Blacks. Having said all these, it is important to differentiate “between the biologically and socially defined concepts of race” (p. 14) as Graves advocates. This is because there can be a fundamental social explanation as to why there are more Blacks seen in active athletics and music than Whites. One of the explanations could be that those that take the lead in these areas have a positive social influence on others, causing them to learn from them and also become achievers in the
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White Privilege. Within critical race theory, the concept of white privilege is essentially rooted in the premise of white people being accorded specific advantages due to the intrinsic social inequality between white and non-white people, particularly within the American and European social construct (Rothenberg).
Some of the privileges enjoyed include being white, male or/and wealthy. By and large in the many societies, these sets of people are easily favoured because of the circumstances surrounding their birth. In Dismantling Privilege—An Ethics of Accountability, what Hobgood the author simply does is to reveal how certain group of people in the society are made to undergo suffer because of some of the features they possess or because of the circumstances surrounding their birth.
Race, social class, and gender organize any given society as a whole. These three constructs create a variety of contexts for a living norm of a family. This is through their character of unique distribution of opportunities in the society. Race is not a biological reality but a socially defined reality.
The idea of Protestant work ethic can be seen to be neither supportive nor compatible with the truth on the socioeconomic realities of gender-based discrimination. The Protestant work ethic assumes that diligence and being upright are the chief and sole ingredients of success, while this is not the case.
This concept of categorizing people changed over the years. To illustrate, in the first half of the nineteenth century, there were four main census categories, free white males, free white females, all other free persons and slaves (Dr. Armstead). However, after a century, the number of groups increased considerably.
Ethnicity is a construct associated with physical attributes of an individual, inclusive of skin colour, the texture of one’s hair, and other relevant anatomical characteristics that serve to classify one group from
Some of these benefits or privileges can be material in nature (such as employment opportunities, or access o loaning facilities). It may also be social privileges (such as presumptions of creditworthiness, competence, intelligence, favoritism in school and
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