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The Inland Tlingit people living in the Subarctic include the Carrier, Dene and Cree. While the Algonquin people occupy the east, the Athapaskan people occupy the west (Holly 10). Despite the slight variation in the culture and language of these groups, the Subarctic hunters generally have similarities in their lifestyles that sought to make them adapt to the harsh environment they lived in.
Traditionally, the Subarctic people were hunters, though they also fished and gathered plants and berries. From an early age, boys were taught how to hunt as this would remain part of their daily activities for the rest of their lives. While men were involved in big-game hunting, women were mostly involved in snaring hare, fishing, processing hides and cutting and drying meat (Anthony 3). Bows and arrows were used in hunting together with other indigenous traps, deadfalls, snares and devices such as the pound and caribou drift fence. The thin distribution of wild animals, making them only available seasonally or locally contributed to the scarce population in the region estimated to have about 60,000 people.
The Subarctic hunters had cultural concepts that appreciated both the need for personal competence and also the reliance on others and the need to put the group’s interest ahead of individual interests. Thus, personalities such as deference to others, self-control, reticence and emotionally undemonstrative styles of interaction were fostered according to O’Neil. The traditions of the Subarctic people associated illness with soul loss. Cures were therefore sought from shamans, women and men with strong spirit powers (Pritzker 483). Shamans also found lost things and foretold the future. Similarly, their religion had everyone believe in various natural powers. They fasted, held vigils and dreamt so as to attract guardian spirits to provide assistance. They respected nature, and food animals formed
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Nevertheless, in the late 17th Century, the invasion by their long-established enemy, the Iroquois had them driven from these locations. The Iroquois, during the 1660s, managed to scatter the Shawnee in all directions to South Carolina, Tennessee’s Cumberland Basin, Eastern Pennsylvania, and Southern Illinois (Pritzker 3).
The common qualities of these countries could be the question to when and how the people lived customarily in the historic and prehistoric times. With this, the present paper will significantly define the meaning of culture that affected and influenced the way of living of the ancient people.
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Keg of Beer during Hunting and Gathering. African Society
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Conflict theory stipulates that society cannot be
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