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On two water provision methods - Lab Report Example

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METHODS OF WATER PROVISION IN ARID AREAS By Instructor Institution Location Date The presence of a water resource in the form of a lake or river to avail water for a population is one of the factors that influence the existence of human settlements…
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Report on two water provision methods
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Download file to see previous pages 21). This describes the situation of arid and semi-arid areas that constitute 30% of the land surface in the world. This means the areas may experience periods of sporadic water shortages, which may threaten the development of the community as well as the lives of the population. The situation is addressed through the establishment of water demand and supply balance that is multifaceted through the incorporation of water provision projects in the regional planning needs. The projects so incorporated should be tailor made to suit the specific problems of the region. Methods of water provision in arid areas The provision of water process may incorporate a diverse range of methods that seek to establish a stable and renewable water supply and demand chain for the arid regions. These options range from the construction of dams to create reservoirs, desalinization processes, ground water reserves exploration, reusing of wastewater, and enhancing rainwater collection methods. However, some factors in the regions serve to rule out some options as the preferred modes. The option of rainwater collection is ruled out if the area receives minimal annual rainfall amounts. The area also requires a steady source of water in the form of a river, for the construction of a dam (Cipollina, Micale, and Rizzuti, 2009, p. 45). The amount of water availed by reusing is dependable on the amount available for use in the first place. This leaves desalinisation processes and the exploration of ground water reserves as the most viable options. Background information of the two methods 1) Desalinisation processes Desalinization also referred to as desalination, is a term used for any of the processes used to remove the large quantities of salts and minerals contained in saline water. The aim of the processes is to produce fresh water that is suitable for incorporation in irrigation and human consumption. The processes are preferred as they produce salts as byproducts that are used in the production of other products. This method of water provision is applicable in the setting of arid areas as most have underground water reserves that are high in salt content that make them unfit for human consumption and other general-purpose applications like irrigation (Wang 2008, p. 24). The method is specifically suitable for arid areas like Egypt and Israel that are next to unlimited saline water reserves in the form of the sea. 2) Underground water exploration Ground water is the collection of water in the ground that results from the infiltration and percolation of water from various forms of precipitation ranging from rainfall to snow, which is then trapped in bedrock consisting impermeable rocks. The location of these water resources is not restricted to specific regions as it is found nearly everywhere (Raghunath2007, p. 71). However, the usable and reliable quantities are only found in rock formations known as aquifers with sufficient voids between them enabling the holding and conducting of water. This means that most arid areas are sitting on large water reserves that may act as stable water supply sources in the areas if they are explored (Webb 2006, p. 12). Comparison between the two methods Processes used i) Desalinization Originally, the processes of desalinization applied vacuum distillation processes to separate the salts from the water. This involved the boiling the saline water in pressure conditions that are much ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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