1.1 Introduction Many recent debates in publications and at the conferences are questioning the global presence of English. English has become the international language of the twenty-first century. It has been both the cause and effect of globalization and of internationalization…
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The primary means by which these flows and networks are established and maintained is through the use of a common contact language. English, the most widely diffused contact language, is the primary linguistic channel through which these flows take place… English is thus a globalized phenomenon that is continuously being LOCALIZED during its countless interactions. The fact that globalization is a very fast process prescribes that children need to be proficient in the English language to be competent in their international dealings (Doman, 2005). Due to the wide proliferation of learning English language, various cultures have adopted the language and integrated their own cultural flavor in it. World Englishes are forms of the English language that non-native English speakers use with native English being American and /or British English. Members of a certain culture use English to suit their own communication styles. Considering the variety of cultures in the world, there are now more non-native English-speakers than native speakers (Jenkins, 2006; Canagarajah, 2007). This includes Saudi Arabian nationals. 1.2 Aims and Objectives 1.3 The Field of World Englishes 'New Englishes' or 'World Englishes' is usually used to refer to the new varieties of English. Mesthrie and Bhatt (2008) state that "it has become customary to use the plural form 'Englishes' to stress the diversity to be found in the language today, and to stress that English no longer has one single base of authority, prestige and normativity." The authors clarify that World Englishes "represents all varieties except the L1 varieties of places like the UK and USA" (Mesthrie and Bhatt, 2008). Accrdoging to Hoffmann and Siebers (2009), "what is often referred to as "the" English language is in fact a heterogeneous and linguistically fascinating group of first (L1), second (L2) and foreign language varieties. A more appropriate cover term is thus World Englishes, which highlights the diversity and world-wide distribution of these varieties" (Hoffmann and Siebers (2009). Salikoko S. Mufwene refers to the notion of ecology, which is the concept borrowed from biology to provide a clear insight into the formation of New Englishes. Focussing on the indigenization of English in North America, Mufwene claims that American English emerged as a variety distinct from British English dialects due to an interaction of several ecological factors (fauna, flora, and socio-economic structures as well as the speaking habits and communicative needs of some of its speakers). Hoffmann and Siebers (2009). Therefore; the specific vernacular of English that arose in Northern America is a result of the universal ecological mechanisms of language contact. Mesthrie and Bhatt emphasise that sociolinguists need to acknowledge that community attitudes and expectations are important. Kachru himself acknowledged that there are many ambiguities, where language attitudes are concerned: The non-native speakers themselves have not been able to accept what may be termed the 'ecological validity' of their nativised or local Englishes. One would have expected such acceptance, given the acculturation and linguistic nativisation of the new varieties. On the other hand, the non-native models of English (such
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