Title Name University Course Instructor Date Syrian Revolution moves from Above to Below by Hinnebusch, Raymond This source will be beneficial in my final work because it gives more details about the Syrian Revolution, its causes, effects and all other aspects that concern the revolution in Syria…
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However, unlike the practical main revolution that causes increased violence and destruction from below, the Syrian revolution was started from above courtesy of reform coup and this paved way for the long Baath’s party military reign that made people feel greatly isolated under the leadership of Assad. Assad played a main role in the leadership of the revolution from above that caused land reforms, education expansion and extension industrialization sponsored by state that favored the elite group of the society. Tom achieve increased power in the Arabic world and secure his power from the West, Assad waged war on Israelites and rejected the United States policy. It examines the outbreak and possible causes of the uprising and to identify the main reasons behind the revolution of Syria, the book examines factors like social conflict, weakness of the institutions, radical parties’ emergence, the military politicization and the function of unfavorable external situation. For instance, according to the author, the revolution traces its origin to the various coups and counter-coups that happened in the early 1960s. The Syrian uprising compared to the Tunisian and Egyptian revolutions was grounded on the revolt of peasants, a Sunni periphery protest against the regime of Baath that turned its back on the Syrian local population, (Hinnebusch 12). Later on, the uprising took on diverse dimensions with Muslim Brotherhoods – Jihadists – entering into the conflict because of the heretical aspects of the regime and due to its alliance with Iran Shiites and Hezbollah. Resultantly, because of Jihad, various demonstrators from across the Arabic and Islamic world have emerged in Syria, although, the slogan of Jihad did not trigger Syrians to enter into the uprising. A different dimension according to the author is revenge, basing from the extreme violent efforts from the regime to halt the protest waves. He suggests that the brutality of the reign acted to extend the circle of the protestors involved in the uprising. A number of people who later joined the protest were encouraged by the desire to avenge their family member, friends and relatives’ bloodshed, and destruction of their properties, cities and settlements by the forces of the regime during the uprising. The book explains the power concentration under the President Assad and examines how presidential monarchy creation buttressed by inherited kin and people commanding repression instrument was integrated with the establishment of Lenisit political organization consisting of a local constituency. The leadership was an inherited type of leadership, for instance, it was a the forty-year regime of the dynasty of Assad – initially under Hafiz and later Bashar, Assad’s son and predecessor, which has prospered in making the nation a firm and stable nation. It also analyzes the Assad’s response to the uprising and the effects of the revolution to Syria as a nation and the entire world. Hinnebusch Raymond also examines the political economy of the development of economy, indicating how industrialization, liberalization of economy and agrarian reforms lead to an increasingly equitable and different but significantly flawed
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