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emic and social discourses around the world for several decades now. Gender issues such as equality have taken centre stage in the world today, and many efforts are being directed at eliminating all forms of discrimination against women; gender equality has now been acknowledged as a universal human right and was articulated as the third millennium goal of the Millennium Summit in 2000 (Deirdre and Maryann 2008, p.303). Education reflects the global efforts by addressing issues such as gender equality and inequality in society; however, there could be worrisome possibilities that education of women, men, girls and boys, has been compromised in the past because of both explicit and implicit gender bias. In this respect, gender bias and language in the English Language Teaching materials have been major areas of focus in the current practice, in an effort to crackdown on any forms of gender bias against the women in society. This paper aims at examining gender and language in ELT materials in the current practice, to highlight, among other things, the new understandings of gender inherent in the ELT materials, in addition to the language specifics of ELT materials.
Gender biasness in ELT materials can be explained by the ambivalent sexism theory because they depict both hostile sexism -denoting an active antagonistic view of women that, both explicitly negative and restrictive, and benevolent sexism-beliefs that women should be cherished, adored and protected from harm (Mehta et al 2013, p.38). As far as benevolent sexism is explicitly positive, it restricts women by viewing them stereotypically and in limited low-status roles, thus is just as potentially damaging as hostile sexism. Ambivalent sexism is built on three major aspects namely dominant/protective paternalism, gender differentiation and, heterosexuality; dominant paternalism/competitive or heterosexual hostility and gender differentiation are elements of hostile sexism whereas protective paternalism is an element of benevolent sexism. Dominant paternalism is the mechanism through which attributes thought to be suitable for positions of power and structural control are assigned to men whereas protective paternalism is the idea that women are ‘weaker sex’ that should be protected and cherished. Heterosexual hostility is the belief that women use their sexuality to control men; competitive gender differentiation refers to the belief that men are the only sex with characteristics such as ambition and agency, which are essential for positions of power and high status. It is no doubt that language is a very powerful tool of socialization that often times shapes the social constructions of gender in many societies across the world today; for decades now, studies have been concerned with the social justice issues. One of the predominant themes of these investigations has always been the role of language in the location and maintenance of women in disadvantageous position in society (Corson 1992, p.230). It has been established repeatedly that education plays a major role in creating unjust
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According to Tannen, a conflict between the way how males and females use language may occur if females use language that is intimate and relationship oriented and when males use language in a way that exhibits status and dominance. This paper will focus on how both the sexes use language differently; the paper will cover various studies conducted previously on the subject of how language and power are linked with each other.
More focus is however put on the individual perception of gender and sexuality. Analysis According to the author, gender is more feminist due to the feminist movement, which is as a result of the dominance and oppression model from which our culture has developed.
Genderlect refers to a variety of speech from a particular gender. There are many myths about how different genders communicate and the approach they take in conversations. For example, there is a popular idea that women talk more men and tend to use linguistic forms that reflect and reinforce a subordinate role in the communication.
Saying the right thing at the right time also could be perilous where the opposite sex, especially women, misjudged the meaning and took the speaker's word for anything than the original meaning. Take as example the farmer who came home late and asked his wife for some drink to quench his thirst.
In her book Language and Woman's Place she points out the use, mostly by women, of 'powerless talk'. This type of talk is characterized by issuing of tentative orders, statements and requests, use of tag-questions and diminutives.
Whereas this kind of language has been associated with women ever since, debate has raged on whether it is characteristic of women or people in positions of less power; and whether this is the way women speak or it is the way they are expected to speak.
As such, ELT course-books reflect ongoing changes in pedagogy (Crookall, 1997). A course-book in second language education draws on
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), which has been a dramatic and significant change that has occurred within second language education in the past five decades.
On one hand, CALL has some evident advantages, such as power, versatility and motivation (Towndrow, 2001). Computers can store large amounts of information, they can process this information at great speed (which helps to diversify tasks with randomly chosen words and word combinations); computers can take a large part of a teacher's routine work like storing the results of their students' activity and carrying out the evaluation of students' works, therefore teachers have more space and time for creative activities.
Language establishes the boundaries of perception. Male references in everyday speech dominate language usage simply because males have historically dominated society and to a large extent still do. In short, the English language is sexist because it
In the effort of becoming co-journeyers in the quest for meaning and knowledge, the school provides the formal venue or arena wherein things are learned, assessed, clarified and re-learned (Dewey, 1944). Moreover, it is in the actual experience of being part of a
English to realize the fundamental role of information and communication technology not only in the area of language teaching and learning but also in the global economy where the proficient use of English is fast assuming the indispensable engine of growth and development. It
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Paper
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