The great Greek myth of Oedipus continues to be integral to the Western literary canon even today. Starting from 5th century B.C., various ancient writers of the Hellenistic era made references to Oedipus in their works…
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One of Aristotle’s most influential works concerning literary theory is his Poetics. In it he articulates with eloquence and clarity various facets of good theatre. Tragedy is acknowledged as a powerful genre of drama. Aristotle goes on to set out various rules of thumb for making aesthetically and emotionally satisfying tragedies. His concise definition of tragedy is that it is “an imitation of an action that is serious ... with incidents arousing pity and fear, in order to accomplish the catharsis of such emotions." (Botton 20) He was in opposition to Plato’s critical and disparaging view of theater. Plato had earlier set the debate rolling in The Republic, stating that poets and other artists should be banned from civil society because they induced excessive emotional responses in audiences which countered calm reasoning. Aristotle rebutted this assertion in Poetics, stating that “although watching tragedies raised emotions, it also purged them. An audience would come away from Oedipus humbled, keen to be better and wiser.” (Botton 20)
In many ways, Oedipus satisfies the Aristotelian conception of the tragic hero. For example, the tragic hero is someone who feels responsible for his actions and is conscious of ethical merits and demerits associated with them. In Sophocles’ Oedipus, we see that the author does not contemplate either the acknowledgement of guilt or the blinding. Instead,
“awareness and blinding will be present in Aeschylus because his Oedipus must not see both 'what he suffered and the bad he did'. According to the author, the individual responsibility celebrated by tragedy is the expression of a people who do not tell history any more, but are aware of making it: a process that Plato could not-or did not want to-recognize, claiming to read tragedy like the continuation of old myths and of old stories, rather than like a new way to tell them again, to involve oneself and to involve us with them in a different way.” ...
ould not-or did not want to-recognize, claiming to read tragedy like the continuation of old myths and of old stories, rather than like a new way to tell them again, to involve oneself and to involve us with them in a different way.” (Goretti 1305) What we also witness in Oedipus is a dimension of the tragic hero engaged in praxis. In Aristotle’s conception of tragedy there is an underlying conflict between ‘absolute necessity’ and ‘freedom’. This is amply evident in crucial life events of Oedipus, who, as the story progresses, is compelled to implement his own demise. For Aristotle, tragedy allows Greeks “to bear the unbearable contradiction that for thought would remain incomprehensible: 'the attestation, even in the loss of freedom, of this same freedom'”. (Goretti 1306)Though we do not find direct mention of concepts such as ‘will’ and ‘responsibility’ in the Poetics, “when Aristotle must indicate the ones who act the tragic action, for him 'hoi prattonese' is not sufficient, but he adds 'kai drontes'. The problem of freedom involves the problem of evil: the evil one does, the evil one suffers or the evil that is anyway committed.” (Goretti 1306) In the case of Oedipus, he is clearly aware of how evil forces are acting upon his life – some of which is caused by his own agency. To the coryphaeus who questions him on what a horrible action he has committed and on which god has induced him, Oedipus answers, “'It was Apollo', and then, a little afterwards, 'It was me, miserable, who did it'.” (Jones 45) According to Aristotle, a sense of foreboding and inevitability makes for effective tragedy. Throughout the story, there are numerous crucial decisions taken by Oedipus, which led up to his inevitable demise. Oedipus is not himself
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The oracle reveals that the plague will only end when the murderer of the erstwhile king Laius is killed or banished for his misdeed. Oedipus also calls upon Tiresias who reluctantly divulges that it is Oedipus who killed Laius. Oedipus is angered because he has won against the Sphinx and has his pride.
I. Excessive Pride in Speech A. Oedipus before his people B. What he reveals about his own self-image II. Excessive Pride in Actions A. Oedipus' actions coming into Thebes B. Creon's warnings to Oedipus III. Downfall A. Pride forces the truth out B. Pride forces great punishment Oedipus the King In his analysis of what makes a true tragedy, the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle identified three major elements.
I. Definiton of Tragedy A. Aristotle’s definition B. It helps in explaining the concept of tragedy II. Othello as an Aristotelian Tragedy A. Characteristics of a tragedy and a tragic hero B. Provides an in depth analysis of the play “Othello” C. A wonderful experience of understanding the concepts of both Shakespearian and Aristotelian Tragedy.
People and in particular readers of fiction will always want happy endings in real life as well as in fictional stories. However, when viewed from the perspective of creators or authors of fictional works, tragic endings and thereby tragic stories will only make a deeper imprint in the minds of the readers.
In other cases, as in the example of Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, the connection is less pronounced and more nuanced, but still pervasive upon analysis. In fact, when considering Aristotle’s definition of tragedy as the presentation of a series of events that are “serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude” so that they work to purify emotions and inspire fear and pity in the reader (10), Huxley’s story of Savage John comes to represent an almost archetypical version of the tragic hero, in the same way that Shakespeare’s Lear has been traditionally viewed.
Through tragic endings and tragic heroes, they would expect the readers to ‘hold on’ to the creation for a longer time. In addition, they would end stories in a tragic manner as a logical end for all the events that would have occurred throughout the story.
Many having been waiting upon the downfall of this piece of literature, but it is almost certain that it will not come to a dark end. While many argue that it will, I still stand for the fact that it will stand the test of time and continue being used in many schools, as a literature tool.
The conventional wisdom regarding tragedy is that it is a so-called tragic flaw in the hero that brings about his downfall, but when looked at more closely, every bad decision that Oedipus makes, including murdering his father and marrying his mother, can really be traced back to the act of a lowly shepherd.
The play is guided by a prophesized fate that states that Oedipus Rex would come to kill his father and sleep with his mother. The play demonstrates that no matter what the characters associated with the fate do that fate is bound to happen. This
Therefore, the sepoys began a rebellion against the British rule. The revolt that began in Meerut whereby the sepoys decided to murder their British superiors would spread to other regions of India. Evidently, the sepoys felt that they
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