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Article Response Paper Name Institution Main Issues/Points Discussed in Article The authors of the article seek to bring out facts about third language (L3) acquisition. In an effort to answer questions asked perennially, they analyse several theories fronted for the relevance of L3/Ln acquisition in adults…
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Download file to see previous pages... They also point out the misconception that many scholars have on the relationship between L2 and L3 acquisition; L3 is not a continuation of L2 as they are independent of each other. As such, the authors highlight the reasons why L3/Ln must be analysed independent of their predecessors, L1 and L2. They also outline the differences between the factors, while specifying their individual and collective contributions to the study of language acquisition. How Article Relates To Previous Knowledge Up to until when I read the article, I was unaware of the existence of any differences in language acquisition; to me, learning a new language was the same process as the child first-language. However, the article outlines the differences in language acquisition clearly. Universal grammar, obtained from first language (L2), and previous linguistic knowledge affect the acquisition of adult third language (L3). Whereas there are controversies on the extent to which these factors affect adult acquisition, there is a general agreement that experiences with L1 and L2 determine its path and ultimate attainment. The article also outlines how children acquire L2 using linguistic experiences from L1. Just like adults do, children form hypotheses about the second language that they are expected to learn. They use these hypotheses to form opinions and come up with techniques and methodologies that help them acquire second languages. The fact that children with L1 experience function, in a similar way as adults, means that L1 acquisition is often referred to as child language ineffectively. This is because it offers children an experience similar to that which L2 acquisition, referred to as adult acquisition, offers grown-ups. Some studies have revealed unexplainable characteristics in L3 that were not learnt in L1 or L2. It is, therefore, correct to deduce that universal grammar is available even at L3. This reinforces the argument that language acquisition is age independent; thereby discrediting the notion that L1 is ‘child first language’ and L2 and L3 as adult acquisition. When L2 learners decide to acquire new languages, whether through tutoring or naturally, they become L3 learners. At this level, they have more metalinguistic acquaintance and learning experience than at L2, increasing their proficiency and instructional experience. The article also brings out the fact that tests reveal that the effects of L1 and L2 on L3 depend on the relationships between the languages, as well as the typological proximity of the studies. This is determined by the level of similarity, or difference, between the L1 and L2 and the L3 acquisitions. For instance, studies showed that placing German as a constant L3, and English and French as alternative L1 and L2, L2 yielded stronger presence in L3, with English showing a stronger influence than French. This is in spite of English and French having very little similarity. This is indicative of the fact that the language learnt as L2 has a greater impact on L3 than that used at L1. Other researches also revealed that no matter the languages, some instances of L1 will be transferred to L2, and in some cases, L3; on the other hand, L3 absorbs some features of L2 as well as L1. Three Concise Excerpts from Article i. ”…it is largely accepted that some level of transfer obtains and significantly alters the path and ultimate attainment potential of adult acquisition” ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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