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It was up to the playwrights to teach the people how to behave and the rules of society within the metropolis. While many of the plays were comedies, demonstrating the more ridiculous consequences that could be experienced if individuals did not abide by the established codes of conduct, others were dramas, revealing much more serious potentialities that could affect more than just the average citizen. As they were presented, these dramas demonstrated the degree to which the entire culture could be disrupted if someone in power chose to break the rules. Some of these dramas have survived into the modern day because they had such a profound effect on their audiences and told stories about mythological or legendary characters and events. Dramas such as Oedipus Rex and Antigone are good examples of this kind of tragic drama. To qualify as a tragic drama, Aristotle identified three main factors that were present in every tragic drama and which were essential to the plot development. These factors were referred to as hamartia, anagnorisis and peripeteia. The term hamartia commonly refers the idea of a tragic flaw (Aristotle, 1282). It is the concept that a noble person will fail due to some inherent flawed portion of his character which causes him to engage in a specific behavior pattern or make an error in judgment rather than due to the manipulations of a vengeful god or as a result of violating the gods' laws. Although the audience might see it, even they are not necessarily supposed to recognize the hero's mistake or misbehavior at the time he commits it, but it will eventually become clear through the action of the play that without this mistake, the tragedy would not have happened. This eventual realization of the initial mistake on the part of the character is what is referred to as anagnorisis (Aristotle, 1283). In Aristotelian terms, this word essentially means recognition. In most cases, this realization occurs suddenly for the character in a kind of epiphany moment when the hero finally understands that they brought this fate on themselves. This epiphany can also shed light on the true nature of all the characters within the play, sometimes something much different than what was expected or assumed. The anagnorisis leads naturally into the third element, that of peripeteia. This term refers to a sudden reversal in action or position based upon logic and intellect (Aristotle, 1283). In tragic drama, it refers to the reversal of the character's fortunes - everything they had is lost. This reversal of fortunes flows naturally as a part of the story, but it usually takes the audience, and the character, by surprise. Although this idea can be traced as a part of the hero’s character, it was more typically used to refer to the external circumstances surrounding the event and the character. Understanding these key elements of a tragic drama helps modern day students characterize these plays simply by looking to see if they adhere to the concepts. In Oedipus the King, for example, the action opens as Oedipus addresses his people, who have come to him hoping he will cure their city of a plague. Rather than encourage them to pray to the gods, Oedipus ridicules them for their prayers and tells them they should have come to him first: “What means this reek of incense everywhere, / From others, and am hither come, myself, / I
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As the audience, we are aware of the whole back story that would lead to the tragedy itself. However, Oedipus the King as a hero is also appreciated much because we see that he is not perfect, like an ordinary human being. He is actually far from perfect, committing several sins and crimes like parricide, homicide and incest.
Dramatic irony, in particular, was employed in the story as a fundamental instrument to build the tempo of the play. In a dramatic irony, audiences are engaged in the progress of the story, in which the actors are unaware of it (Winnington-Ingram 1980). In this way spectators are placed in a prime position, as they are more knowledgeable of the plot than the characters themselves.
Today's tragic hero can be male or female, come from any stratum of society, can hold any job, literally be anyone. Along with these admirable amendments to the rules, however, have come other differences in defining that a tragic hero is. In contemporary popular drama, by which is typically meant film, the tragic hero-or heroine-has generally been downgraded to mean the "good guy" who dies in the end.
Almost every character of Oedipus suffers from the same controversy: he or she knows the sad truth; as this truth is dangerous, the character refuses to share it with Oedipus; consequently, the king of Thebes has to add to this suffering from knowledge more suffering from
Polynices is the traitor and the enemy of the state as such Creon strongly believes that he deserves that treatment. Security of the state is the primary requirement for humankind, religion, family life and for the proper and peaceful existence. According
People are not sure of what to expect from the angry nature. The interpreters of nature are too in tension with the leadership since they may be viewed to be rebelling against the leadership. The theme has also been developed through destiny; the murder of
The setting is Washington, D.C., circa 2054. The film is about an upcoming society where homicides are stopped through the efforts of three mutants’ individuals who had the ability to see the future. The author explains how the department of
The play has a mythical theme, which is always difficult to perform on the stage, but it is always intriguing enough to captivate the spectators. Igor Stravinsky was a Russian composer; his version of Oedipus Rex was
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