Name Professor Subject Date Gender and Sexual Violence Sexual violence is one of the many unfortunate realities of our history, especially with gender biases and with homophobic attitudes against lesbians, gay, and transgender individuals. These incidents of sexual violence often impact negatively on the victims, causing them much physical and psychological harm…
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Stotzer (p. 172) discusses that according to surveys of transsexuals, there seems to a significant number of sexual assault incidents, including rape, especially for the younger transsexuals. The most common forms of violence against transsexuals include unwanted sexual activity with about 60% of these incidents being forced intercourse (Stotzer, p. 172). These transsexuals are often victims due to their perceived non-conformity to the standards of society. The motivation for these sexual assaults includes hatred and negative attitudes towards the transgenders (Stotzer, p. 172). Victims are quick to declare that they are often victims of sexual assault or rape and mostly due to homophobia and hate. They also feel that they are often victims of sexual assault because of their gender identity, their gender expression, and their transgender status (Stotzer, p. 172). Abuse is also often carried out by various people, mostly strangers. Police officers, parents, siblings, neighbors, friends, and other relatives are also often the perpetrators of the abuse (Stotzer, p. 173). Most acts of violence include sexual assaults, harassment, and in some cases, muggings. Unfortunately, some are carried out by persons known to the victim (Stotzer, p. 174). Some of these offenders include fathers, stepfathers, mothers, stepmothers, current spouse/partners, brother, siblings, or a former spouse or partner (Stotzer, p. 174). Other perpetrators not closely known to victims include landlords, tenants, ‘pick-ups,’ security personnel, and in some cases, service providers. Murphy (p. 7) further discusses that violence against lesbians and gays are the most apparent dangers which these individuals face. However, they are also likely to face structural violence and episodic violence. Structural violence against gay men is often caused by heteroxism which basically embodies a system that degrades homosexuals for their behavior and their identity (Murphy, p. 7). Psychological heteroxism is often linked with individuals’ attitudes and behaviors and cultural heteroxism often refers to their societal customs and institutions, including their religion and laws (Murphy, p. 7). The cultural heteroxism is the most common cause for violence as it can also lead to discrimination against these lesbians and gays in their housing and employment. Murphy (p. 7) cites the cases of Margarethe Cammemeyer, a military veteran who was dismissed from the army after years of exemplary service to her country; also the case of Sherry Barone who faced opposition from a cemetery who refused to include the epitaph ‘life partner’ on the headstone of her deceased partner (Murphy, p. 7). More indirect incidents of discrimination are perpetuated against gays and lesbians; and those who often decide to reveal their sexuality end up being dismissed, demoted from their work or driven out of their homes. The causes of gender violence seem to stem from preconceived notions and assumptions of gender. Specifically, these assumptions are based on the expectations for each gender which often refer to extremely different behavior, mostly referring to dominant males and subordinate females (Perry, p. 417). Violence is considered to be a way by which males can impose their authority and dominance over women; and it seems to be expected for men to enforce such violence in order to keep women in line (Perry, p. 417).
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