Australia has been facing periodical water shortage and dry spells that have been in prevalence for the last one hundred years. Currently, about six percent of the South-East Queensland is facing acute shortage of water and thus severe drought…
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Colvin unveils that rainfall experienced in South-East Queensland has been significantly below average for the past six years, and this has marked the ten year history of severe water shortage in this part of Australia. The situation of water shortage in Australia has led to steaming debate in the political and public spectrum as blames are exchanged to politicians for failing to establish appropriate policies to ensure water security in the South-East Queensland. A portion of blame is also exchanged to the citizens who are perceived to misuse the water, and the potential drought seasons. Showing regard and concern about water shortage experienced in the South- East Queensland, this report is purposed to identify and propose two possible methods of supplying water in the arid areas of the South-East Queens land in Australia. The report will also analyze the cost effects of the two methods identified and propose the convenient method to be adopted first and the one to be adopted in the process as the actual supply underway. The two methods that shall be addressed by this report will include water recycling and rainwater harvesting. Background The problem of water shortage in the South-East Queensland in Australia dates back about 100 years with the worst historical drought periods was lapsing between 1898 and 1903 (Colvin). However, 1974 offered slight compensation to the past periods of drought as the year experienced historic rains that led to yet historic floods that have never been experienced again in the region. According to Radcliffe (4), the statics of 2003 showing water provision depicted that about 414000ml was used in residential gardens, 183000ml used in laundry, kitchen used 61000ml, and bathroom consumed 317000ml. The 2003 statistics also indicate that the total volume of water consumed in residential was 1219000, industries and businesses consumed 437000ml, local government and its fire-fighters consumer total volume of 139000ml, system losses amounted to 221000ml as errors in client meters amounted to 49000ml (Radcliffe 4). Importance of the Requirements Rainwater harvesting mainly involves collection of rain water that falls on the roofs and surfaces of structure and tapping that water into storage tanks for future use. Rainwater harvesting could also involve collection of the surface runoffs that forms on the ground and directing such water into storage dams and other water reservoirs for future use in irrigation or in households for cleaning items. When such scarce water is collected in the arid areas, it is usually considered as precious element and will be used with great care (Pigram, 2006, p. 145). Harvesting rainwater has been considered to be of lower cost since the process only requires one to have an iron roofed house of structure and water storage tanks, which are usually obtained at cheaper prices. Collection of rainwater is also environmental friendly since water collected reduces flooding, which might break sewerage lines and result to unhealthy environment. Rainwater also has gained massive public recognition and acceptance as one of the best means of obtaining fresh water that is rich in natural mineral elements that are good for health. Water recycling simply means to reuse all ready used and contaminated water but after undergoing series of treatment and safety guaranteed for particular use. The sources of recyclable water include sewerages, municipal wastewaters and grey water among other sources of used waters. Recycling water is a friendly undertake to the environmental safety and sanity. Recycling water helps in reducing contaminations and loads of nutrients that may be hazardous to the
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