The origin of Iran-Iraq War The Iran-Iraq war began in 1980 and lasted for approximately 8 years. This war marked the end for warfare of the Industrial style, which was characterized by mass: extremely large armies, supported by logistical networks that were complex in nature. …
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The war, however, was frustrating for both parties, with a victory that was decisive eluding them both. Various factors relating to the regime changes in both countries led to a full-blown war between Iraq and Iran, and a proxy war between Iran & the US. The premise of this paper is to analyze this war and the role the US had to play in it. 2. Iraqi army and Iran troops In 1979, Saddam Hussein, a Sunni Muslim, took over power in Iraq, and set out to make Iraq the leading state in the Middle East (Kilborn 79). While Saddam and most of his supporters were Sunnis, the majority of Iraqi’s were Shia’s. Saddam did not trust them. Iran a neighbour to the east was predominantly Shia. In 1979, the Iranians, led by Ayatollah Khomeini, also overthrew their government, which had been under the Shah, a treasured ally of the US and Israel, and this led to an enmity brewing between these two entities. The revolution in Iran also marked the first time that clerics of Islam had harnessed the authority of religion to overthrow a modern and secular state with a theocracy (Jacek 39). 3. Saddam Hussein’s personality The most potent catalyst for the Iraq-Iran war was Saddam Hussein’s personality. Repeatedly, he aggressed against the Iranians, and it was only a matter of time before war broke out. A number of reasons were to nudge Saddam into starting a war. These were longstanding issues like access to the gulf of Persia by the Iraqi’s, & a few recent ones like the mistrust that the Iraqi’s felt towards the Iranians and their new government (Phythian 71). The Iraqi has historically claimed the oil rich province of Khuzestan, which had a large Arab population of non-Persian population, with historical ties to Iraq. A few small islands in the gulf of Persia, which were militarily occupied by Iran, were also laid claim to by Iraq. There was also the Shatt al-Arab waterway, which was disputed by both countries. 4. Diplomatic ties between Iraq and Iran Tensions between Tehran and Baghdad heightened in 1980. A group sponsored by the Iranians attempted to assassinate the foreign minister of Iraq, while Iraq captured and hanged Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr, the grand Ayatollah, and a staunch, public defender of the Islamic Revolution (Phythian 79). Diplomatic ties were cut, with minor skirmishes along the border. Iraq, in September, declared Shatt al-Arab waterway as their territory, before invading Iran on the 22nd. The invading Iraqi’s were remarkably successful at first, managing to gain large swathes of territory, including Khuzestan. However, their march began to lose steam, due in large part to the ferocity with which the Iranian public responded, and the bravery of the Air Force of Iran. In January of 1981, the Iranians mounted a counteroffensive, which was unsuccessful & led to a stalemate period (Kilborn 91). 5. United States’ Contributions During the war, both countries attacked oil tankers bound for each other’s nation, in an attempt to cripple their foreign exchange sources. As the stalemate dragged on, neutral vessels were attacked with increasing regularity in the middle 1980s. This was especially a paramount concern for Western oil importing countries. After Iranians attacked Kuwait’s vessels, the United States’ president, Ronald Regan, gave the green light for Kuwaiti vessels to fly under the US flag, placing them under the patronage of the US, and giving the US the right to strike back if these ships were attacked
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(The Iran-Iraq War of the 1980s Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words)
“The Iran-Iraq War of the 1980s Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/english/1446510-the-iran-iraq-war-of-the-1980s.
Some of the reasons were economic while others were driven by ideology. The first economic reason for the war between Iran and Iraq was control over a shipping channel in western Iran. This channel had traditionally been controlled by the rulers of Iraq, but had changed hands in the 17th century.
These are the world’s most deadly arsenal, and its effects have led to strict laws being passed to limit its spread. Iran has witnessed participation in these conventions to promote global peace through signing treaties that limit its activities in the creation of dangerous weapons.
The UN charter stipulates clearly the procedures that should be followed by a country to perpetrate coercion or violence to another state. The UN charter is the only legitimate basis that a country can use to attack another sovereign state since it has been reached through consensus by the member states forming the United Nations.
Answering these one by one will make the picture clearer.
It was known that for the U.S and its allies for a military intervention in Iraq, a prior authorization from the United Nations Security Council was a must. It is believed that the invasion of an independent country like Iraq was a breach of international law laid by the U.N.
The government installed by the United States in the Iraq after the invasion fails to strengthen its position in uniting the Iraqi people. The implementation of policies which is supposed to give the Middle East nation a fresh start and a new look never materializes and turmoil also hounds Iraq nowadays.
The threat environment is defined by instability in neighboring states which could spill over, possible hegemonic behavior by regional powers, and, increasingly, from the potential for domestic instability. Gulf regimes have had to respond to these diverse vulnerabilities with traditional defensive measures, military modernization, and, in some cases, renewed commitments to political and economic reform."2
Christians and to destroy that vile race from the lands of our friends.” The Pope was calling for a religious crusade, a religious war to rid eastern Christendom and the Holy Land of Muslim invaders. Clearly, in the Middle Ages religious conflict caused wars. (Fulcher of
The paper further continues by assessing the relationship between these two countries and the superpowers. Religion in both Iraq and Iran is stated in the both. The author describes how Iran is related to the United States, and how Iraq related with Superpowers, which were either hostile or friendly.
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