Since the Second World War ended in 1945, the United States military has engaged in five major conflicts in different parts of the globe, which have inflicted heavy economic damage on the country and loss of numerous lives of the combatants and civilian populations. …
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There is strong and credible argument that the United States foreign policy has encouraged widespread destabilization across the world, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and terrorism. The use of the United States military should be restricted to situations where the country’s regional integrity, liberty, or sovereignty is under threat. President George Washington, the founding father of the United States, established the country’s first foreign policy that forbids the new republic to engage in political and power struggles in other countries across the globe. During his farewell speech in 1796, the president stated that “the great rule of conduct for the United States foreign policy is extending the countries commercial relations, with minimal political involvement as possible” (Gordon and Shapiro, 2004, p52). The president further stated that it was in the United States’ foreign policy to avoid unnecessary permanent alliances with any region across the globe (Dean 1999). Since that speech, the United States has been involved into numerous conflicts across all the six continents in the world. The main objective of the United States involvement in the Cold War was to deter expansion of communism across the world. According to Bleschloss and Talbot (1993), the progress of the Soviet Red Army in the Second World War established the Soviet Union as the most dominant power in European continent. The Red Army freed Eastern Europe from an unwarranted Nazi aggression which had claimed millions of lives in the continent. Blum (2003) noted that the Soviet Union had suffered the heaviest casualties, totalling over 20 million and the new government under President Josef Stalin was determined to prevent western style democracy to become entrenched in the European continent. From these developments, Winston Churchill, then English prime minister, warned of the descent of “iron curtain” in Europe (Cohen, 1993). This marked the beginning of the United States intervention in the region, driven by concerns about the prospect of communist rule in both Eastern and Western Europe. The opposing views pertaining to the political future of the European continent created conflict between the Soviet Union and the United States referred as the Cold War. The tension threatened outbreak of the Third World War as both countries engaged in massive military mobilizations and development of weapons of mass destruction. The competition for developing military weapons and desire to contain the Soviet influence caused a major shift in the United States foreign policy which became more inclined to aggression. According to Cameron (2005, p. 62), the United States committed itself to pursuing “a patient but firm, long-term policy for containing and eventually destroying the communism by indentifying and revealing major social and economic weaknesses associated with the ideology”. The resulting ideological war took over four decades, causing heavy economic losses to the American economy. Through Truman Doctrine, the United States made its first foreign intervention during peacetime. The country spent millions of dollars to support countries in Europe that were under threat of falling into soviet influence. These included Turkey and Greece in which the American government invested over
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During the term of US President Richard Nixon, the Vietnam War was already heating up and getting more out of hand. The situation in this scenario showed that Soviet Russia and the People’s Republic of China were giving military aid to the forces of Communist North Vietnam, while the United States provided military aid to the democratic South Vietnam.
The conclusion from this study states that in a nutshell, US spying operations and the seeking of the services of Nazis did more harm than good to the country back home. Although the impacts were preferred at their inception, by the then American leaders, they failed to contribute effectively toward the strengths of the country on a number of national issues.
The processes that are involved in the determination, maintenance and modification to foreign policy differ significantly between different sovereign states. Change in foreign policy is based on the way that the role of states’ in the international environment shifts and is redefined, particularly following a significant international event (Le Prestre, 1997).
From Isolationism to Interventionism. America's evolution.
Since the end of Second World War, the American overseas policy has shifted from Isolationism to Interventionism. Before the Second World War, United States followed policies that prevented them from taking actions to interfere or change the political or social climate of other nations.
Each had a highly contrasted sense of policy from the other, in terms of how the United States should take a stand towards the Cold War and what would be the most favorable policy for their victory and the Soviets’ defeat.
Even though the relationship between United States and Soviet Union are observed in the perspective of post World War II experiences and in relation with Stalin’s expansionist policies, there are other influential factors.
However this foreign policy is hesitant to commit blood and treasure in matters of pursuing democracy and accepts war in places where there is strategic necessity or a war waged to an enemy that poses a global threat to freedom of the whole world.
Many in the West called this a victory with many praising U.S. President Ronald Reagan and his aggressive, military policy towards the Soviet Union. Francis Fukuyama called it the end of history.1 Others looked to the future with U.S. President George H. W.Bush speaking about a 'new world order'
Some kind of global governance is necessary, but it must protect and promote the national sovereignty and dignity of each nation within the global world.
The emerging norm of humanitarian intervention suggests that when all other diplomatic actions have failed, states can legitimately employ military force against another state in order to protect civilians in danger.