William Burroughs was amongst the most influential literary figures in the 20th century. He was a writer who deviated from traditional ways of writing and made literature exciting and mysterious. He had the tendency of creating a literature of risk whereby the writer portrayed himself as an outsider in a society surrounded with acceptable writers…
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Junky was a semi autobiographical narrative of the daily life of a heroin addict. Although the book is quite straightforward in telling the story of a drug addict it is considered to be more political than literary. The book attracted controversy because of its contentious drug themes, which is evident from subtitles in the book such as Confessions of an Unredeemed Drug Addict. Nevertheless, it is clear from the story that the author has depicted himself as an outsider amongst outsiders because he himself was not a drug addict but had ventured into the sleazy world of drugs in attempts to escape from his mental agony after he accidentally shot his wife. This paper makes a comparison of Burroughs work with Hale’s A Nation of Outsiders. The paper holds that Hale has focused and highlighted perceptions of how middle class whites in America began believing themselves to be outsiders in their own country during the period after the Second World War. In contrast, the Junky does not aim at creating any kind of sympathy for drug addicts. The book titled A Nation of Outsiders: How the White Middle Class Fell in Love with Rebellion in Postwar America by Grace Elizabeth Hale also deals with the issue of outsider in terms of the characteristics of life in America after the end of the Second World War. ...
At this time Americans had started identifying themselves with outsiders or rebels whom they mostly associated with African Americans. Hale argues that in having identified themselves with the outsider, Americans had started pursuing inconsistent objectives. They had started working towards their self perceived independence and individual freedom. In being fascinated with outsiders, Americans had started desiring to remain connected and to have value in terms of having a deep sense of sharing with other people. Such paradoxical reversals engrossed many white middle class Americans after the Second World War. It became a fashion for middle class whites in America to have perceptions of being outsiders. Hale has depicted how a large number of people began defining themselves as outsiders although these groups always appeared to compete with one another. But all these people created their respective group’s identity as outsiders. For instance, during the time when the abortion debate was at its zenith, anti abortion activists thought of themselves as outsiders because the Supreme Court had legalized abortion in 1973. Because these people were entirely against legalizing abortion they started considering themselves as outsiders, while the insiders were considered to be those that were favored by the law of the land (Hale, 2011). The similarity of these circumstances can be felt in Burrough’s Junky because nothing much has changed in the several years since the book was published. Drug addiction continues to be a strong moral issue for many people and in being fair as a society Americans have not made much progress by way of understanding the ways in which drugs should be treated. It cannot be denied that there
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Summary I will now summarize the main arguments presented in the paper and discuss how these are connected to figurational sociology. Velija and Flynn identified two main themes which were characteristics of established and outsider relations in the racing figuration and group disgrace and group charisma in female jockeys.
In addition, as Cross (the Negro intellectual) searchers for the meaning of life as an outsider, he actually encounters different characters and perspectives on what life is all about, leading him to associate with “outsider” communists, his rejection of religion, and as well as his rejection of the present structure and order of society (Wright1-629).
Not only does the book have an interesting storyline but the boldness and flow of emotions which is achieved with the help of introducing Yunior as the main narrator of the story helped to make the book a a truly noteworthy piece of art. The below essay would explain why the author has chosen an outsider to tell the story rather than someone of Oscar’s family.
1 It reveals the magnitude of the insider/outsider problem in understanding, interpreting and studying the religions. From the critical perspective, being a practitioner of a religious belief or an insider can be considered as an obstacle to critical reception and analysis of religion, because it adds subjectivity and effectively eliminates objectivity and reasoning from the analysis.
One sincerely and strikingly believes that the values practiced are more precious than the values prevalent in the society in which one is living. Unable to find the perfect discipline of ones choice, one is compelled to carry on
alesman, and his overnight metamorphosis from a human being into a huge insect, and the events that follow his tragic, inexplicable transformation (Gray 181). The purpose of this paper is to investigate how Gregor Samsa is an outsider in The Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka.
The author states that numerous US citizens like me Aidah feel out of place in situations where the phrase “typical American” is employed in reference to the citizens who are Christian and white, among others. It is extremely easy to feel out of place especially when one does not appear or have the feeling of the “typical” American.
The art movement- or what has been considered popular art has varied and changed in topic and substance from time to time. This is what gives art its widest berth. Art is but an expression of meaning- it can reflect anything from an artist’s particular point of view regarding the realities of life, cultural phenomena, political satire- the artist’s brush and his mind are the only tools needed.
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