Every being on this earth uses a certain form of communication to send messages to others of its kind. As the being grows more advanced, so does their language, which is why human beings use a particularly complex language. …
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This large number of functions is why learning a language is an essential part a human’s development, thus making it one of the most important fields of research for psychologists, doctors, as well as linguists. The process by which a person learns to use a language is language acquisition (Bailey, Madden and Krashen, 235–243, 1974). The learning occurs when the person has grasped how to use the words to express them, and to understand other people when they use these words. In addition, it is not necessarily limited to children. Adults may also undergo language acquisition in case of delayed learning, or in case, they are learning a secondary language (Behrens, 245, 2008). There are several components to this learning, such as understanding how to use syntax, phonetics, and a range of vocabulary (Goodluck, 87, 1991).
Furthermore, language is not limited to spoken communication. Sign language is also a common form of language, which consists of using manual signals and gestures to speak. Only human beings have a language that is complex enough to have uniformity in structure, and employs proper vocabulary and syntax (Oxford, 261-275, 1989). Linguists have always been particularly interested in researching the process through which infants learn a language. This process is especially intriguing due to how little input and time these young children require learning a language. Several theorists have presented viewpoints and theories about this phenomenal language acquisition (Macaro, 381, 2010). This paper explores on the usefulness of one of these theories, which is the Presentation, Practice and Production Approach to Language Teaching (PPP approach), and will research the depths of its criticism. It will further try to explore alternative theories by comparing their validity and reliability to PPP, to evaluate this theory further. Language acquisition is an intricate process. It depends especially on the methodology that the teacher employs while teaching the language. These methodologies can be of six different types. One is Collaborative Learning, in which the roles are roughly under division between the student and the teacher, with both of them participating equally in the learning process. It is an interactive method, where the learning occurs by their holding conversations, interviews and having several other experiences (Unsworth, 60-66, 2010). This describes the second and third stages of the PPP approach, which stress on the student putting what they have learnt into practice. The second method is the Cooperative Language Learning, in which the student learns to use a language by socializing and interacting. This again, describes the practice stage of the PPP approach. The third method is Discovery-based learning, which is derived from the theories of the renowned psychologist Piaget. It bases its methodology on constructivist methods, involving the students having to inquire about and discover the several dimensions of the language their learning. This may not synchronize well with the PPP approach due to the vast different in technique and ideology. The fourth method is Engaged Learning (Unsworth, 60-66, 2010). This method makes the learners actively engage in the acquisition of the language, which they do using several tools, such as videos and recordings. Apart from this, there is Problem-based learning, which teaches the student how to use and understand a language by first teaching them a part of it, and then testing them through a question-answer format. In this method, the
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For the purpose of this study, however, this paper has confined the review of the corpus of literature to those relating or relevant to a proposal to introduce English in elementary education in Saudi Arabia and in the curriculum development in studying ESL among young learners.
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PPP Approach to Language Teaching Language is the basic mode of communication amongst all animals, particularly advanced and complex in humans. Humans use language to express, communicate, inform, alert, instruct, and attract. Thus, learning to communicate in language is a very critical part of the learning phase and it is for this very reason that doctors, psychologists, and linguists have devoted their time and effort in analyzing, contemplating, and implementing the art and science of language acquisition.
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