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Surface Transformations of Bio-Glass 45S5 during Scaffold Synthesis - Assignment Example

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In the paper “Surface Transformations of Bio-Glass 45S5 during Scaffold Synthesis” the author discusses bioactive glasses, which possess biocompatible properties and are known to exhibit strong inter- surface bonding with bones. This bioactivity is attributed to the hydroxycarbonate apatite layer…
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Surface Transformations of Bio-Glass 45S5 during Scaffold Synthesis
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Download file to see previous pages These include; ion exchange, dissolution, and precipitation. Ion exchange takes place at the surface of the bioactive glass whereby cations like Na+ and Ca2+ from the bioactive glass interchange with H+ from the surrounding solution. Dissolution, on the other hand, results from breakage of Si–O–Si bonds through hydroxyl ions action. The resulting hydrated silica formed on the bioactive glass surface undergoes rearrangement through neighboring silanols polycondensation, and as a result, a silica-rich gel layer is formed. Calcium and phosphate ions released from the bioactive glass alongside those from the solution create a calcium–phosphate-rich layer on the surface through precipitation.
In physiological fluid, hydroxycarbonate apatite layer resembling the bone mineral develops on Bioglass 45S5 surface. The layer adsorbs the surrounding tissue’s collagen attracting osteoblasts creating a favorable environment for bone regrowth. Consequently, bioglass is considered an osteoinductive material (Shea & Mooney, 2009). Nonetheless, there is a limitation in its brittleness where the glass cannot be solely used in the healing of extensive bone defects. This is overcome by using the bioglass to form a composite scaffold with poly (d, l-lactide) (PDLLA); a biodegradable polymer. Bioactive glass has a weight composition as shown; 45% of SiO2, 24.5% of Na2O, 24.5% of CaO, and 4% of P2O5 with sodium ion being the first to leach. The Na+ is exchanged with protons (H+) from the solution around it.
Speedy Na+/H+ exchange raises the pH of the solution and Bioactive Glass silica network commence the process of dissolution. As Si-O-Si bridges rupture, there is the formation of silanol groups which gradually undergo condensation to form a silica-rich layer.  ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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