Free

# Fluid ( Head loss through a pipe) - Lab Report Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
This classification is depend on whether the flow id in a conduit or over a surface. Each of this classes of flow has different flow exhibition characteristics. Internal fluid flow occurs…

## Extract of sample "Fluid ( Head loss through a pipe)"

Head loss through pipes Department Head loss through pipes There are two es of fluid flow, these are internal fluid flow and external fluid flow. This classification is depend on whether the flow id in a conduit or over a surface. Each of this classes of flow has different flow exhibition characteristics. Internal fluid flow occurs in a conduit the flow mainly occurs due to pressure difference in the pipe (Spellman, 2000).
Flow through a closed pipe is described by the flow rate which is influenced the velocity and the fluid the surface area of the pipe. The velocity of flow varies at different points of the pipe whereby its zero at the surface of the pipe, and this is attributed to the no- slip conditions, and its goes to the maximum at the center of the pipe. The rate of fluid flow in a given pipe is not constant. This is attributed to the various opposing factors that hinder the constant flow of the fluid. This factors result in loss of energy of the fluid otherwise known as head loss. Thus head loss can be defined as the total amount of energy reduction of the fluid as it moves. The head loss is caused by the friction of the fluid particles as they are in motion and other minor losses which are caused by various factors which include bends in the pipe, constrictions in the pipe, joints, among others. The losses due to friction are referred to as friction losses and are considered to be the major losses in the pipe (Spellman, 2008).
The velocity of the fluid in a pipe is related to the head loss in the pipe as illustrated in the equation below.
Simplifying the above equation gives log 
This experiment is aimed at proving the equation log 
Methodology
The layout of the apparatus was inspected to make sure that the function of each component is understood. Measurement of the medium and the largest pipe was made and the Q and h of the pipes recorded.
Results and Analysis
No
Q (m³/s)
A
V= Q/A
Hf
Log v
Log hf
Volume
Volume
Time
Q
(m²)
(m/s)
(m)
(ml³)
(m³)
(s)
(m³/s)
1
82
0.000082
30.21
2.71433E-06
80
0.00008
30.3
2.64026E-06
0.000007069
0.373499
0.06
-0.42771
-1.22185
80
0.00008
30.21
2.64813E-06
2
150
0.00015
19.65
7.63359E-06
152
0.000152
20.23
7.51359E-06
0.000007069
1.062893
0.385
0.02649
-0.41454
0
3
128
0.000128
15.23
8.40446E-06
126
0.000126
15.01
8.3944E-06
0.000007069
1.187495
0.444
0.074632
-0.35262
0
4
88
0.000088
10.11
8.70425E-06
88
0.000088
9.92
8.87097E-06
0.000007069
1.254911
0.47
0.098613
-0.3279
0
5
81
0.000081
30.19
2.68301E-06
82
0.000082
32.4
2.53086E-06
0.000007069
0.358023
0.065
-0.44609
-1.18709
81
0.000081
30.22
2.68034E-06
6
121
0.000121
30.23
4.00265E-06
122
0.000122
31.44
3.88041E-06
0.000007069
0.548933
0.085
-0.26048
-1.07058
119
0.000119
30.11
3.95218E-06
7
165
0.000165
30.24
5.45635E-06
165
0.000165
30.35
5.43657E-06
0.000007069
0.769072
0.152
-0.11403
-0.81816
163
0.000163
30.6
5.3268E-06
4
105
0.000105
15.24
6.88976E-06
106
0.000106
15.44
6.86528E-06
0.000007069
0.971182
0.294
-0.0127
-0.53165
The slope of the line is 1.7019 and the y intercept is – 0.5148. This implies that the value of n is 1.7019 and the value of k is antilog -0.5148= 0.305
Calculating the Darcy factor
Friction head loss is related to velocity using the equation below;
Since K is a constant in this scenario, then it can be found by getting the values of  and V from the graph and establishing a relationship as below.
From the graph, n=1.7019 and k is 0.305
Taking an arbitray point of the graph, (-0.1, -0.7)
Thus hf is calculated as antilog -0.7 = 0.2 and V is calculated as antilog -0.1= 0.8 m/s
Since, then the value of K can be calculated as
But
Replacing appropriately
Thus the Darcy’s Friction factor is 4.2*10-4
Conclusion.
From the graph, it can be seen that the velocity is directly proportional to head loss due to friction in that as velocity increases, the head loss due to friction increases. This is a linear relationship.
References
Spellman, F. R., 2000. The Science of Water: Concepts and Applications, Second Edition. 1st ed. Boca raton: CRC Press.
Spellman, F. R., 2008. Handbook of Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations, Second Edition. 2nd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Read More
Cite this document
• APA
• MLA
• CHICAGO
(“Fluid lab ( Head loss through a pipe) Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1”, n.d.)
Fluid lab ( Head loss through a pipe) Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/engineering-and-construction/1632274-fluid-lab-head-loss-through-a-pipe
(Fluid Lab ( Head Loss through a Pipe) Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words - 1)
Fluid Lab ( Head Loss through a Pipe) Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words - 1. https://studentshare.org/engineering-and-construction/1632274-fluid-lab-head-loss-through-a-pipe.
“Fluid Lab ( Head Loss through a Pipe) Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words - 1”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/engineering-and-construction/1632274-fluid-lab-head-loss-through-a-pipe.
Click to create a comment or rate a document

## CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Fluid lab ( Head loss through a pipe)

### Head Loss Fluid Mechanics

...?Head Loss Fluid Mechanics Introduction Fluid flowing in pipes is usually turbulent. The flow is considered turbulent if the Reynolds value is greater than 4000. During the turbulent flow, the velocity distribution is relatively the same (or uniform) and the velocity profile is flatter in comparison to the laminar flow. It is important to note that there are pressure fluctuations and irregular velocity in turbulent flow. In turbulent flow, fluctuations in velocity influence the mean motion such that it causes additional shear resistance to the flow. The turbulent shear stress is composed of shear stress and viscous shear stress generated because of...
15 Pages(3750 words)Essay

### Journal: The Sacred Pipe

...? The Sacred Pipe The Sacred Pipe Joseph Epes Brown the of the book Sacred Pipes managed to meet men who had excellent human and spiritual believes and cultures. Among these men were the Black Elk who had a unique form of power, kindliness, and mission. His birth was in 1862, and brought up in a community where people enjoyed the freedom of plain and hunting. During his youth age Whirlwind Chaser, Elk Head, instructed Black Elk about the sacred love of his community’s people and Black Road whereby he fully understood the history and meaning of the people’s spiritual believes, culture, and heritage. With the help of prayers, fasting, and deep understanding of his...
7 Pages(1750 words)Research Paper

### Environmental fluid mechanicsopen channel flow lab report

...25.0 mm 57.3337 57.292 30.0 mm 54.0266 54.3162 35.0 mm 57.292 56.7656 40.0 mm 62.1354 61.1766 45.0 mm 63.4081 62.8309 50.0mm 71.1373 71.4922 6. Comparing the total energy plots at different positions, you will notice that at some points, The result of energy drops to several units. This is an indication that there is a hydraulic jump in this particular portion of the experiment rendered. The head lost occurs at the point where the measured calibration is at 35.00mm. The hydraulic jump normally occurs when the upstream flow is supercritical. In the experiment rendered, the hydraulic jump occurs at a point where the calibration reading is 35.00 mm. 7. In the course of the experiment, the different...
5 Pages(1250 words)Lab Report

### Fluid lab ( Head loss through a pipe)

...Head loss through pipes There are two es of fluid flow, these are internal fluid flow and external fluid flow. This ification is depend on whether the flow id in a conduit or over a surface. Each of this classes of flow has different flow exhibition characteristics. Internal fluid flow occurs in a conduit the flow mainly occurs due to pressure difference in the pipe. Flow through a closed pipe is described by the flow rate which is influenced the velocity and the fluid the surface area of the pipe. The velocity of flow...
2 Pages(500 words)Lab Report

### Sorting device for metal stampings experiment / FLUID POWER LAB

...and actuating the valve had an enormous impact on the pressure regulator placed beneath. It is also noticed that when the one way control valve is rotated clock wise ,the pressure gauge goes slower to reach “6”. Since there are 2 pressure gauges, the effect is different as the push button valve is pressed. It was seen that when the push button is pressed the lower pressure gauge went to “6”immediately. It was understood through the experiment that the pressure gauge had a crucial part to play in the lab activity. The pressure gauge was regulated by a regulator and as the pressure loaded by the push button activated the whole device and worked the metal stamping device as required. In the experiment, the...
1 Pages(250 words)Lab Report

### Copper pipe

...resistance. The fluid that can evaporate is chosen from many available fluids that do not freeze at normal temperatures. Solar collectors that have 0.5 inches have the advantage of eliminating the use of water in the collector system. In addition, the tank has an insulator that can be fitted with a backup pre-heater 32. This is used to establish a minimum system thermal output when there is no enough sunshine (Fred, 2010). Moreover, it greatly reduces freeze susceptibility compared to solar systems that has 1 inch copper. Due to the solar collector system being vented to the atmosphere, those with 0.5 copper inch are easy to assemble and maintain thus allowing excellent heat transfer characteristics...
1 Pages(250 words)Research Paper

### PIPE

...it comes to food, “more is traded than wheat, lumber and oil” (Patel 75). In the case of my recipe, it was the dry-fruits that were imported. The tea I consumed has a very special significance in the global food system; “It is through tea and sugar that many of today’s soft drinks trace their ancestry” (Patel 77), although neither tea nor sugar has a very long history of appearance in the international scene. Moreover, Patel claims that “International trade transformed the world” (Patel 81). This trade is not just happening through exchange of food ingredients, but also through exchange of food recipes. I took the recipe of banana bread from Youtube and the person I learned the recipe...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

### Marking Machine / Fluid Power Lab

... Results Figure Circuit diagram Figure 2: Displacement set up diagram. Figure 3: displacement time diagram Switch 2 is used as the actuating start condition of the system. When the push button is pressed on switch 1, two signals re sent out to pressure valve 1 and then pass the signal on to port 14. Being a one way control, valve 3 will reverse and result into the advancing of the rod of the cylinder at a given speed depending on the settings. When the cylinder finally reaches the forward end position, it activates switch 3 and air fills the valves and the adjusted time is elapsed. Valve 2 then passes the pressure signal to port 12 on valve 3 which then reverses and the rod goes back to its initial position. Conclusion... Results Figure...
1 Pages(250 words)Lab Report

### Separating out plain pins - Fluid Power lab

...Insert Separating out Plain Pins Results The circuit designed utilized bi-stable memory with the ability to control the cylinder forward and backward action. The total number of pins fed into the system was successfully separated into two groups. The forward stroke drove one group while the backstroke set the second group of pins. Conclusion The experiment objectives were met whereby the plain pins were successfully separated. The group of pins was separated into two varying groups based on the pin size. The first groups were selected from the first forward stroke while the second group was selected from the backstroke of the double acting cylinder. The circuit design for the control mechanism was the most challenging part... Separating out...
1 Pages(250 words)Lab Report

### PIPE

... PIPE Do you have loans? Are they burdensome to you and/or your family? Do you worry about them alot? I do not have student loans. However, if I would have had them, they would have been burdensome to me and my family. This is because, during the repayment period, there is interest that might have been imposed on the loans. Such like factors on student loans make the students and their families to struggle in settling the loans inclusive of the interest. I do worry about those who have student loans. It is because it is not guaranteed that they will get enough money after completing their students for repaying the loans. Also, they will have a lot of responsibilities and thus the money they will have might not be enough to cover... PIPE Do...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay