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Fluid ( Head loss through a pipe) - Lab Report Example

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Summary
This classification is depend on whether the flow id in a conduit or over a surface. Each of this classes of flow has different flow exhibition characteristics. Internal fluid flow occurs…
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Fluid lab ( Head loss through a pipe)
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Head loss through pipes There are two es of fluid flow, these are internal fluid flow and external fluid flow. This ification is depend on whether the flow id in a conduit or over a surface. Each of this classes of flow has different flow exhibition characteristics. Internal fluid flow occurs in a conduit the flow mainly occurs due to pressure difference in the pipe.
Flow through a closed pipe is described by the flow rate which is influenced the velocity and the fluid the surface area of the pipe. The velocity of flow varies at different points of the pipe whereby its zero at the surface of the pipe, and this is attributed to the no- slip conditions, and its goes to the maximum at the center of the pipe. The rate of fluid flow in a given pipe is not constant. This is attributed to the various opposing factors that hinder the constant flow of the fluid. This factors result in loss of energy of the fluid otherwise known as head loss. Thus head loss can be defined as the total amount of energy reduction of the fluid as it moves. The head loss is caused by the friction of the fluid particles as they are in motion and other minor losses which are caused by various factors which include bends in the pipe, constrictions in the pipe, joints, among others. The losses due to friction are referred to as friction losses and are considered to be the major losses in the pipe.
The velocity of the fluid in a pipe is related to the head loss in the pipe as illustrated in the equation below.
Simplifying the above equation gives log
This experiment is aimed at proving the equation log
Methodology
The layout of the apparatus was inspected to make sure that the function of each component is understood. Measurement of the medium and the largest pipe was made and the Q and h of the pipes recorded.
Results
No
Q (m³/s)
A
(m²)
V= Q/A
(m/s)
Hf
(m)
Log v
Log hf
Volume
(ml³)
Volume
(m³)
Time
(s)
Q
(m³/s)
1
82
30.21
7.069x10EX-6
0.060
80
30.30
80
30.21
2
150
19.65
7.069x10EX-6
0.385
152
20.23
3
128
15.23
7.069x10EX-6
0.444
126
15.01
4
88
10.11
7.069x10EX-6
0.470
88
9.92
5
81
30.19
7.069x10EX-6
0.065
82
32.40
81
30.22
6
121
30.23
7.069x10EX-6
0.085
122
31.44
119
30.11
7
165
30.24
7.069x10EX-6
0.152
165
30.35
163
30.60
4
105
15.24
7.069x10EX-6
0.294
106
15.44
105
15.30
Analysis
No
Q (m³/s)
A
V= Q/A
Hf
Log v
Log hf
Volume
Volume
Time
Q
(m²)
(m/s)
(m)
(ml³)
(m³)
(s)
(m³/s)
1
82
0.000082
30.21
2.71433E-06
80
0.00008
30.3
2.64026E-06
0.000007069
0.373499
0.06
-0.42771
-1.22185
80
0.00008
30.21
2.64813E-06
2
150
0.00015
19.65
7.63359E-06
152
0.000152
20.23
7.51359E-06
0.000007069
1.062893
0.385
0.02649
-0.41454
0
3
128
0.000128
15.23
8.40446E-06
126
0.000126
15.01
8.3944E-06
0.000007069
1.187495
0.444
0.074632
-0.35262
0
4
88
0.000088
10.11
8.70425E-06
88
0.000088
9.92
8.87097E-06
0.000007069
1.254911
0.47
0.098613
-0.3279
0
5
81
0.000081
30.19
2.68301E-06
82
0.000082
32.4
2.53086E-06
0.000007069
0.358023
0.065
-0.44609
-1.18709
81
0.000081
30.22
2.68034E-06
6
121
0.000121
30.23
4.00265E-06
122
0.000122
31.44
3.88041E-06
0.000007069
0.548933
0.085
-0.26048
-1.07058
119
0.000119
30.11
3.95218E-06
7
165
0.000165
30.24
5.45635E-06
165
0.000165
30.35
5.43657E-06
0.000007069
0.769072
0.152
-0.11403
-0.81816
163
0.000163
30.6
5.3268E-06
4
105
0.000105
15.24
6.88976E-06
106
0.000106
15.44
6.86528E-06
0.000007069
0.971182
0.294
-0.0127
-0.53165
The slope of the line is 1.7019 and the y intercept is – 0.5148. This implies that the value of n is 1.7019 and the value of k is antilog -0.5148= 0.305
Calculating the Darcy factor
But n=1.7019 and k is 0.305
Taking an arbitray point of the graph, (-0.1, -0.7)
Thus hf is calculated as antilog -0.7 = 0.2
Replacing hf in we have the equation below assuming g=9.81 Read More
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