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Planning Theory - Essay Example

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Planning theory Name: University: Course: Tutor: Date: Introduction The term theory is broadly used and covers several meanings depending on the context or use. One way in which it can be used is through pejorative way, which dismisses something as simply being, unfeasible or unconnected to actuality as in a case of being too theoretical…
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Planning Theory Essay
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Planning Theory

Download file to see previous pages... Its key element is that it abstracts some distinctiveness of realism in the effort of isolating and describing its core features. A theory must be in practice for a given duration of time to evaluate its purpose. It should include some elements of prediction or prescription to guide action. Essentially the elements of a theory include its abstract from reality a set of general or specific principles which could be used as a basis of explaining and acting with the theory being tested.2 There are numerous categories of theory. They include; normative, respective, empirical, models, conceptual frameworks or perspectives, theorizing. These theories provide a useful way of going beyond the general idea of theories. Planning theory The term ‘planning’ means different things to different people. In this context planning is viewed as a discipline with strong technical basis. It works in terms of applying various techniques, models and formulas to solve problems. Moreover, it results to presenting itself as a science where it focuses in objectively solving problems by value-neutral planners.3 Yet another dimension describes planning as an art of decision and plan making. Planning systems have revolved over time in the need to organize and regulated human society and its surroundings. Diverse societies all over the worlds over centuries have diverse sets of values. Planning systems and their roles change over time due to change of societal values and the advent of technological developments, hence the need to understand the context of social and historical changes.4 Theories found in planning focus on how to go about carrying out planning. They focus on procedural matters as compared to substantial matters. They deal with issues such as design methods, decision making, organizations and community action. These could be said to be prescriptive theories because they explain of how to go about carrying our planning tasks. What is of most important to note is that, planning must work hand in hand with the element of time. Planning should be time sensitive since we do not plan for the past but for the future. Besides, ideas tend to change over time with the outdated ideas exiting o pave way for the current ideas, with a certain capacity of individuals and the society having to carry volumes of ideas within their span of consideration at one time.5 Categories of Planning Theory There are five schools of panning theory. They include; rational –comprehensive planning theory, advocacy planning theory, incremental list planning theory, and the two branches of communicative planning theory: planning as consensus –seeking and management of conflicts. Rational-comprehensive planning theory Rational-comprehensive planning theory developed in the seventeenth and eighteenth century under the close checks of Auguste Comte who was a father of sociology. He sought to apply the methods of observation and experimentation which was similar to the classical science of his time. He argued that the persistent of social problems could be solved through the application of the certain hierarchal rules.6 ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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