Implantable Cardiac Pacemaker Name: Institution Abstract The increasing cases of heart failure evoked research and development along the medical field and this led to the invention of pacemaker. It is important to underline the various concepts that surround this gadget as far its structural and functional components is concerned…
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Its blood pumping role is set at a certain pulse limit below or above which the process becomes abnormal which may be fatal.In this regard, a device called pacemaker which is an artificial pulse regulator was invented for those with malfunctioning heart muscle. It is the comparison between the structure and functions of the device that is taken through critical investigation with the aim of establishing its mechanism of pulsating. The clinical problem that the device addresses, including a brief description of the therapeutic function, and a brief history of the development and deployment of the device The management and caring for patients diagnosed with cardiac problem has been very challenging in the present world owing to the complexity of these infections. Electric pacing is one of the latest medical engineering developments that has gained acceptance as being one of the common prophylactic or therapeutic strategies of managing cardiac problems in patients. In the management of myocardial infections compounded by system injury, temporary cardiac pacing devices often play a significant role (Luderitz, 2012). It is at this point that cardiac pacemaker is deployed in order to help patients suffering from cardiac problems. The primary function of cardiac pacemaker in clinical and medical health is to pace hearts to help in recognizing the presence of intrinsic cardiac electrical activity and to restrain pacing of the heart in the absence of normal intrinsic impulses. This electric pacing device is often implanted in the heart of patients diagnosed with sinus node dysfunction. Only two approaches were commonly employed in the restoration of cardiac arrest (Bernstein, 2002, pp.260-2). This happened years before cardiac pacemakers were advanced. The two methods were intracardial therapy and mechanical simulation. The first successful heart pacing treatment was a case of an Australian baby that used Lidwill’s apparatus as the artificial pacemaker. Irrespective of the drugs and medical therapy used in this first pacing case, medical doctors at the New York Beth Hospital attributed the success to the prick needle inserted into the heart. The design was named after the founder, Hyman’s pacemaker, which took place in 1932. Interest in pacemakers (artificial pacemakers) with respect to cardiology rekindled after WWII, this time round, the exercise was spearheaded by Callagan, Hopps, and Bigelow, research experts at the University of Toronto, Canada. After conducting a thoracotomy, John Hopps designed the first artificial pacemaker with the ability to produce impulses at the desired rhythm (Bigelow, 2008, p.841). However, the first case of clinical application of pacemaker happened in 1952. This first successful application of pacemaker involved Zoll’s pacemaker. This occurred at the Boston Beth Israel Hospital when a man aged 75 was admitted to suffering episodes perceived to be Stokes Adams attack (collapse without warning and unconsciousness) and heart blockage, a condition that is common among the elderly and is associated with ischemic disease of the heart (Bigelow, 2008, p. 842). The first implantation of the pacemaker took place on October 8, 1958. This involved Mr. Larsson Arne (aged 43) who was found to be suffering from Stokes-Adams attacks and complete heart block. However, following the increase in technological innovation and advancements in the late 1970’
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The lungs of the aging individual illustrate damaged exchange of gas, decelerated expiratory flow speeds, and a reduction in essential capacity. In addition, physiologic aging is also accompanied by decreased elasticity and compliance of the large arteries and aorta.
The automated external defibrillator is one of the portable electronic devices within the medical field that is used to automatically diagnose the potentially life-threatening ventricular tachycardia and cardiac arrhythmias. This device can treat these diseases through defibrillation allowing the heart to reestablish an effective rhythm.
According to the report a pacemaker is important because it helps a person to enjoy optimal health levels in spite of a slow and irregular heart rhythm. The device allows the body to have an appropriate amount of blood circulation. A pacemaker can eliminate the symptoms associated with bradycardia by regulating the heart’s rhythm.
Heart failure occurs when the heart is unable to pump normal amounts of blood supply to meet the needs of the body. Incidentally, heart failure is precipitated by the weakening of heart muscles over a period of time. Due to this, the heart resorts to straining its muscles to work harder in order to meet the body’s demand for blood.
The author states that the Defibrillator is used to address the heart problem of Ventricular fibrillation and arrhythmia, which are both heart conditions that are associated with irregular heartbeat. The device is used to help patients who have abnormal electrical heart activities, which may range from heartbeats that are too fast.
Though a great deal is known about the mechanism of action of the implantable gastric stimulator, much is yet to be known, especially in regard to its effect on the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal hormonal activity. Clinical trials are still underway to establish the therapeutic effectiveness of the IGS on a more solid foundation.
The sinus node, atrium, and AV node are significantly influenced by autonomic tone (Saxena, P., Konstantinov, I. E., and Newman, M. A., 2007, p 60). Vagal influences depress the automaticity of the sinus node, depress conduction, and prolong AV nodal conduction and refractoriness in the tissues surrounding the sinus node; inhomogeneously decreases atrial refractoriness, slows atrial conduction and prolong AV nodal conduction and refractoriness (Reade, M.C., 2007, p 265).
When the heart’s sustenance is at risk, it cannot pump anymore blood to the human system and hence the body dies. The heart breakdown can have various symptoms in humans, but the extreme tension on this organ can invariably lead to cardiac arrest and finally death.
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