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Traumatic injuries are responsible for huge economic burden to the family and society. In addition, it causes devastating effects to the families and friends of the children who are injured because of cognitive, emotional, behavioral and social effects. Traumatic brain injuries economic burden has been estimated to the level of sixty billion dollars.
While the treatment related to traumatic brain injuries are limited. Significant advancement has been achieved in recognition, acute care and rehabilitative strategies of care. The improvement in handling of traumatic brain injuries cases has led to a great improvement and increase in the rate of surviving. The improvement in the rate of survival has led to the more survivors having significant lifetime motor, social and cognitive impairments. Currently, there is no treatment therapy of brain injuries due to trauma to help in salvaging, supporting, repairing or even replacing the tissues that are damaged because of the impact of trauma.
The main cause of disability as well as death in children in the United States is injuries to the brain due to trauma. Children from age zero (0) to four years forms a group with the greatest risk of getting traumatic injuries to the brain according to the center for disease control and prevention. On average, approximately sixty-two thousand children sustain injuries to their brain that requires hospitalization because of many causes that ranges from crashes from motor vehicle, falls and physical abuse among other causes. Approximately two thousand six hundred and eighty-five deaths, thirty-seven thousand hospitalizations and four hundred and thirty five thousand emergency department visits are seen among children aged from zero (0) to seven (7) years suffering from traumatic brain injuries (Rosenfeld et al., 2012).
According to the CDC congressional report of 2004, on traumatic brain injury among children aged 0 to 7 years in the United States, approximately one
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There is much debate centered on the appropriate time in a person’s life of when to begin learning a second language. Neuroscience perhaps is the best field to resolve this debate. Through the use of neuroimaging techniques, neuroscientists have the ability to identify the structures of the brain involved in primary and second language acquisition.
Individual’s health is affected when they are subjected to unpleasant environmental adaptations that challenge their lifestyle. Without the necessary attention to regulate a healthy lifestyle, the performance and reaction towards the generation of positive results within the society is challenged.
TIB is generally defined as “brain injury from externally inflicted trauma resulting from violence or acceleration-deceleration impact injury.” (Jacobs (Bay, Kreulen, Shavers, and Currier 141) It is also generally understood that TBI is not the result from, “from strokes, tumors, infection, progressive neurological diseases, metabolic disturbances, toxic agents, and inherited or congenital conditions” (Geva, Barsky, and Westernoff 30).
Each year America records a high prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children, approximately one million. This attributes to 20% of deaths in children and about 165,000 hospitalization cases wherein approximately 20,000 get minor injuries. These brain injuries are mostly caused by falls, sports-related injuries that occur on the head.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) refers to a severe psychiatric disorder classified as an anxiety disorder that can develop after a person has been exposed to a terrifying event or ordeal, in which grave physical harm occurred or threatened. Traumatic stresses may be caused by natural disasters (floods, earthquakes, tornadoes), and human actions (torture, war, accidents, rape, child abuse).
The occurrence of traumatic brain injury can subsequently occur from an object penetrating the skull or fracturing (Marion 43). This, therefore, causes bleeding in the brain or physical damage that can cause mental complications or death. Where the damage is mild the effects may last for a while and cause mild dysfunction of the brain.
TBI is one of the significant causes of death and disability worldwide more so in younger children and adults. Studies show that TBI is more rampant in males compared to their counterpart females at all ages of life. This is due to the more likely physical activities men engage compared to females.
Eventually, the occurrence of the injuries results to impaired emotions, physical disability, behavioral functioning changes, and cognitive inabilities. Common causes of (TBI) include fall, sports related injuries, explosive blasts, assaults and automobile accidents.
can be clinically diagnosed when symptoms like disturbing flashbacks recur, memories of the event continue to disturb, and high levels of anxiety take place even after months of the event. It is not necessary that all people suffering from traumatic events develop this
related concussion every year in the United States of America alone (Langlois, Rutland-Brown, & Wald, 2006, as cited in Saulle & Greenwald, 2012, p.1). The statistics, nevertheless, is hardly accurate because there could be more, since many athletes do not seek medical
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