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Extract of sample "Research Questions & Hypotheses"
Postsecondary Scenario Foothills is a primarily liberal arts serving approximately 7,500 The campus is nestled in the foothills above a major metropolitan city. Although the student body consists of people from the metro area, about 15% are from other states and another 5% are international students. The student population also reflects the diversity of the city with many races and ethnicities represented on campus. The male to female student body is about 50/50. The university relies on tuition, fees, and a substantial endowment to meet its financial obligations. The campus and its supporters are very proud of the sports programs. The most popular sports are mens football and womens softball. Although the football team boasts of winning seasons year after year, it is by no means a powerhouse. The softball team, though, is consistently conference champions and once won the national championship. Therefore, the popularity of sports has been a solid marketing feature of the university along with its well-respected academic programs. Even with all this popularity, all parties agree it is important to grow the campus to maintain its reputation and compete with peer institutions. The new strategic plan at Foothills University reports a need to increase student enrollments by 15% over the next five years. As part of this initiative, three new academic programs are to be implemented, although the subject matter is open to study. Most of the universitys academic programs are at the bachelors level with 6,000 students and a few masters programs with 1,500 students. The executives and board of trustees thought about adding doctoral programs, but are concerned about the potential effects on the universitys liberal arts mission as well as the impact to finances. The Vice President for Academic Affairs has been tasked by the president to oversee the process. Not wanting to make rash decisions about where to increase enrollments and what type of programs to implement, the VP convened a task force to research the issues. He expects the task force to conduct formal, empirical research to study the issues. You are appointed by the VP as the lead researcher. As lead researcher, you are to develop the projects, conduct the research, and provide recommendations for decision making to the VP. Introduction It has been unanimously agreed that the crux of economic development and poverty alleviation lie in the education. That’s the reason that colleges and universities are deemed not only an engine to socio-economic development but also recognized as invaluable economic assets. (Zhang, 2004) summarizes his study as follows: Findings suggest that socioeconomic factors and academic factors are not all that separated; they work in tandem. The academically and socioeconomically “rich” become richer while the academically and socioeconomically “poor” become poorer in the face of massive expansion of higher education in the United States. As more longitudinal data resources are available, future studies will be able to examine these interactions throughout one’s life. Unlike other sectors, where a firm may be able to survive longer just by changing the product packaging, the education sector has been facing stiff challenges – both financially and qualitatively. We have seen the products failure of even multi-billionaire firms inflicting a heavy dent to its overall reputation in the market so is in the case of education. In short, this sector cannot opt for a Trade-off rather has to devise a balanced strategy – the strategy which has to be in line with the institution’s strategic goals as well as provide ways & means for sustainable growth in academia. Purpose Statement The purpose of this study was to come-up with a strategic plan aimed to 15% growth in students’ enrolments at Foothills University in the next five years. Qualitative Research Qualitative approach is most appropriate when discussions, interviews, surveys, phenomenology, situations, observations, behavioral/cultural/contextual/theoretical studies are involved in research and the results to be drawn have to be subjective or descriptive (non-numeric). The other way we can say that this approach is used when the qualitative variables cannot be tested or measured in terms of figures or quantity. The crux of a qualitative research lies in the socially-developed reality and the research problem is situation-bound. Since the objective of this study (i.e. 15% growth in students’ enrolment in the next five years) is nothing to do with the secondary data (statistics or figures) rather involves many of the methods, stated in the preceding para, I understand this (qualitative) approach is the best for conducting this research Central Research Question How can Foothills ensure its potential growth in years to come as well as sustainability in the prevailing competitive environment without affecting the University’s liberal arts mission as well as the impact to finances? Quantitative Research Quantitative approach builds upon the theory, the variables and their relationship and comparison. In order words this approach, having examined the relationship among significant factors (variables), finally leads to an objective (statistical/quantifiable) solution. The process of information collection could be determined by survey research, experiment, quasi-experiment, single subject experiments and correlation. The information/data collected provides quantitative attributes of a population which are measured to draw a conclusion. Research Questions 1. Does adding to course portfolio (doctoral programs) lead to increase in growth? 2. What is the relationship between quality of education and growth in students’ enrolment? 3. Could promoting the sports lead to increase in growth? Research Hypotheses 1. Launching a new degree program significantly increases a University’s growth. 2. Quality of education is significant to increase in a University’s growth 3. Promoting sports is one of the predominant factors behind a University’s growth. Decision Making I understand “high quality of education” would come-up as one of the strongest elements behind the Foothills growth. Evidently, the first and foremost objective of a student joining a University is to persuade a higher quality of education. Today both youth and parents are more conscious than ever before. They do investigate the credibility and standing of the institute before admission. Therefore, I would decide to excel the standard of education and strive to achieve a good rank among the existing Universities. (Heyneman, 2004) in the summary stated the following: Current issues which predominate education quality debates concern the degree to which nations are differentiated not by educational access but by quality. High income nations are able to invest per student about 300 times more than low income nations. Investments in educational quality are growing throughout the world, with the exception of sub-Saharan Africa. Results 1. Launching a new degree program significantly increases a University’s growth. I think adding to the programs portfolio (doctoral programs in this case) would have moderate significance to the growth strategy. Reason being other Universities may also offer or perhaps are already offering the same programs. Secondly, in case others are offering at a lower fee than that of Foothills then this initiative will become insignificant to growth leaving no distinguishing point for students to choose Foothills only. 2. Promoting sports is one of the predominant factors behind a University’s growth. I think promoting sports will be least significant to Foothills growth. Reason being the core of business is “Education” and not sports. This strategy might work for a shorter period of time and could result in attracting few students. However, it shall not ensure sustainable growth diminishing Foothills ability to compete in the market. Recommendations 1) Though the findings reveal that “Quality of Education” is the most significant factor that boosts the growth of an education institution nonetheless a broader-spectrum research in this sphere is highly advisable. Reason being I understand that there could possible other factors that could work better in conjunction with quality of education. (Long, 2005) under the conclusion stated the following: This research demonstrates the importance of viewing school quality as multi-faceted with a broad array of possible effects. Further work should explore non-linearities and interactions in the effects of college qualities. Furthermore, additional work should be done exploring the interaction of college qualities with student attributes to explore whether quality has differential effects on sub-groups in the population. 2) I would also highly recommend the students’ input and their opinion in the domain, because eventually it is the passed-out students who have to play an important role in the country’s socio-economic development. Therefore, students’ opinion must not be underestimated. Conclusion The purpose of this study was to come-up with a strategy leading to 15% growth in students’ enrolment in the next five years. In-depth discussions & surveys were conducted by means of distributing an unstructured questionnaire among the six management cadre personnel and 20 faculty members of Foothills University. Besides this, another structured questionnaire was distributed among 200 existing students of the University. The findings, based on the responses received, showed that “Quality of Education” is the most significant factor to growth. Surprisingly, the second most dominant factor found, was the “Level of facilities and environment provided to the students”. As such the study concludes with a note that “Quality of Education” must not be compromised under any circumstance plus providing better facilities and study environment is a definite plus to growth. References Heyneman, S. (2004). International education quality, Economics of Education Review, 23 (441-452). Retrieved October 03, 2011, from http://www-new.vanderbilt.edu/peabody/heyneman/PUBLICATIONS/200402.pdf Long, M. (2005). College Quality and Early Adult Outcomes. Retrieved October 03, 2011, from http://web.uvic.ca/econ/research/seminars/Long.pdf Zhang, L. (2004). Advance to Graduate Education: The Effect of College Quality and Undergraduate Majors, Working papers, 49. Retrieved October 03, 2011, from http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/workingpapers/49/
...Hypotheses It is hypothesized that mock jurors exposed to political media coverage of terror acts will be more confident of the defendant's guilt than jurors exposed to religious media coverage. More so, it is also expected that jurors will be more confident of Middle-Eastern defendant's guilt as compared to Anglo-American defendants, when the terror act is religious.
There is a lack of empirical research into media-induced juror bias toward terrorist defendants. Four hundred North American female and male jurors with previous trial experience, and across ethnic backgrounds, were randomly selected for this research. Groups of 50 participants were provided with a media booklet...
...Part A: Research Scenarios (30 points) In each of the research scenarios presented below, you are required to provide answers to various questions that ask about the Null and Alternative hypotheses, independent and dependent variables (if any). You are also asked to comment on what might be wrong with the experimental design employed in the study and you may be asked to provide a solution or asked to re-design the study.
In answering the questions,
It is in your best interests to be as precise and succinct as possible;
Please write your answers legibly, preferably in pen.
Scenario 1 (10 points)
Karsh (1983) designed an experiment on the relationship between early handling and friendliness in cats. She randomly assigned kittens to one...
...Statistics for IO psychology Objective The objective of this research is to study the effect of music on three groups of people working under constant, unpredictable, and no music.
This research will cover the following researchquestions:
Is there a positive correlation between music and work performance at work place?
Does the quality of work decrease as the noise of music increase?
Does music have a negative effect on people who are required to perform complex tasks?
H0: Music has a significant effect on the performance of the group working under constant music.
H1: Music has no significant effect on the performance of the group working under constant music.
H2: Music has a significant effect...
...Business Research -Data, variables and hypotheses Vani Aparna Chavali Business Research -Data, variables and hypotheses The table below shows the various hypotheses, the independent, extraneous and dependent variables and their level of measurement.
Level of Measurement
H1: Employee satisfaction is positively correlated to the quality of work.
Quality of work undertaken by an employee
Employee satisfaction levels
7-point interval scale (Highly satisfied to not satisfied)
State of economy
H2: Intent to exit the organisation is negatively correlated to employee satisfaction
Employee intent to exit
Continuous rating scale (Intending to exit...
...Preparing ResearchQuestions and HypothesesResearch is the process that entails seeking to address an existing issue or problem by considering what is already known and then developing ideas and theories, which when tested, provide solutions to the problem when tested. From this definition, it is clear that research is simply about testing hypothesis and answering researchquestions. It is necessary for any researcher the number of researchquestions and hypotheses are needed for a particular study.
The scope of the research or study is the main determinant of the appropriate number of researchquestions and hypotheses. Alvesson and Sandberg (2011) suggest that identifying and constructing gaps in existing theories is one way...
Hypothesis Hypothesis Hypothesis is an explanation accepted provisionally, to interpret certain phenomena or events and give guidance in making further investigations. However, it must be able to undergo refutation and be proven to be either correct or wrong. In addition, the hypothesis is said to be corroborated or verified if it is not refuted by facts. Hypothesis is often used in healthcare institutions by physicians as a method of statistical inference. As a result, it helps them to carryout testing procedures and understands the basic concepts for making sound opinion and decisions on presented results (Heathfield, 1998). Healthcare is a discipline that is intensely driven by data that contain health information of a parti...
... September 17, Hypothesis Introduction Market tests focus on gathering relevant actual decision making data. The paper explains the various market test information needed to help generate higher future sales outputs. The paper explains the use of the gathered market test data on business decision making activities. The market test information enhances business decision making priorities.
Market Test information
A market test can be done to determine whether the company is able to reach the $75,000 sales objective (Pride, 2014). First, the market test will indicate the products’ current selling prices. Compared to setting prices that are lower than the competitors’ selling prices, the company must exert extra efforts to generate... September ...
Hypothesis about Alcoholism amongst Adolescents A hypothesis refers to an educated guess and contains the information that is known primarily about a given topic. There exist a rift and the same time a valid connection between the generation and the evaluation of the hypothesis. The difference, however, merits all the steps in detailed and merited examinations. In addition to that, the proposition induces further basis and foundations for reasoning (Marshal, p 570). In the end, the link directs into critical thinking that finally yields investigation to the known facts. Therefore, it’s an opinion that does not necessarily need to contain truth and the truth about it is the genesis of the formulated investigations. Take for instanc...
Introduction Problem ment The research purpose was d in the introduction section “Globally, maintaining skin integrity and preventing pressure ulcers (PUs) have traditionally been the nurses responsibility when caring for hospitalized patients as shown in a study in the same setting few years ago,” (Adejumo & Ingwu, 2010, p. 472).It is stated that the problem continues to rise and it is not only for nursing but the healthcare system as a whole. The problem could be located after reading between the lines since it was stated in a broad statement. This problem is not unique since it has been investigated in another previous study. The other issue is that the research problem is significant to the nursing practice and it is also pres...
1. Is social media really serving the purpose of making people more sociable or is it creating an introverted generation? As society advancesto the 21st century, the advent of technology has made a dramatic impact on the social aspects of people. Social networking websites such as Facebook, twitter, orkut and myspace.com have dramatically enabled society to express themselves individually. However, one cannot diminish the fact that these social networking websites have cause an up rise over security flaws that have plagues the creation of the networking websites. Facebook privacy breaches have without a doubt become a nightmare for its users. The social media has become avenue for less human interaction, and more human division.
Basically, where he drew a comparison between the two, was by equating their attempt to explain concepts and constructs therein, by the use of numbers (Pythagoras) and ideas (Plato).
Aristotle believed that these were comparable in the sense, that these were arrangements of convenience, wherein additions or subtractions in the notions could be contrived at a theoretical convenience, just so that a link could be established amongst the theoretical construct originally proposed by them. Aristotle believed that Plato advocated the notion that forms (ideas) cause both existence and generation. On the other hand, Aristotle felt that Pythagoras supported the idea that numbers try to explain the connotation of the universe and...
Data must be subjected to the thinking process in terms of ordered reasoning.
Descriptive Research describes and interprets what it is. It is concerned with conditions of relationships that exist; practices that prevail; beliefs, processes that are going on; effects that are being felt, or trends that are developing.
The process of descriptive research goes beyond mere gathering and tabulation of data. It involves the elements or interpretation of the meaning or significance of what is described. Thus description is often combined with comparison and contrast involving measurements, classifications, interpretation, and evaluation.
In other words, descriptive research may be defined as the purposive...
Potassium or K and Calcium or Ca has shown greater Mean Residence Time in rainforest chaparral when compared to temperate forests whereas Phosphorus or P demonstrates maximum variance in Mean Residence Time.
In general, plant productivity and Mean Residence Time are such that one increases whilst the other decreases. In subarctic regions, there is low plant productivity and greater Mean Residence Time.
In tropical forests, the mean residence time of nutrients is influenced by higher temperatures than in subarctic forests. Therefore, there is a vast difference in the MRT of nutrients pertaining to the tropical rainforest and the subarctic forest.
Nuclear fission weapons tests in 1961 released radioa...
Cosmopolitan/Communitarian divide relates to a dispute on whether or not the state or the species stand in for the limit of human society. In Campbell’s distinguished definition, he explained justice as “like the pre-original, anarchic relation to the other, and akin to the undecidable. It represents the domain of the impossible and the unrepresentable that lies outside and beyond the limit of the possible and the representable.” (1994, p. 472)
In general, there are two contrasting positions in understanding international justice and intervention. In its universal sense, the two perspectives can be distinguished as a particularist and universalist. One perceives in a state-centric manner while the othe...
Gap’s credit ratings thereby limiting access to the capital market, international trade matters which may be disruptive of the supply chain, changes to its IT systems disruptive of operations, changes in the IT services agreement with IBM that can disrupt operations and produce adverse effects on financial results, international expansion through franchising and other arrangements may impair the value of its brands if unsuccessful, products are subject to risks associated with overseas outsourcing and manufacturing, and failure of vendors to adhere to Gap’s code of vendor conduct could harm the business. From available data in the 2007 Annual Report, both the Gap and Old Navy brands have exhibited declining net sales....
The writer of content tries to preserve his/her culture and also wants his/her culture to get attached to his/her recent living due to which, he/she makes use of the bilingual aspect to write a narrative.
Because of this writing, the English reader faces some problem in decoding the meaning but he/she realizes the presence of another culture by means of this writing. Many writers provide a glossary at the end so that the readers face no problem in decoding the words given in another language such as Soueif has done but many take it for granted that readers know the other language as well.
The article contains a detailed evaluation of the novel by Soueif which can be categorized as the strength of the re...
Two hypotheses were tested in this paper. There are two groups that were compared in the paper. The control group has participants who follow the three-day cannula re-site protocol currently employed in most hospitals. The intervention group would only have cannula re-sites if their medical condition demands it. One of the hypotheses of this paper states that the control group would have more unplanned IV cannula re-site than the intervention group. Secondly, it also states that the cost of total cannula re-site of the control group would be higher than in the intervention group. A randomized controlled trial was employed for this study. This was very much appropriate for this type of study. According to Pildal, et al (2005),...
Research ethics was maintained as the identity of the individuals participating was kept secret. As far as the validity of the study was concerned, the researchers attempted to use content validity in order to get an accurate response. The content validity focused on measuring off the ethnicities and gender percentages within the area and attempting to get a random sample of individuals via the phone. Their approach to random calling allowed for a significant random sample in the study. There were a few issues, however, with this type of approach. Those answering the phone sometimes were not always the desired individual, and not all of the desired people were surveyed. Different replacements did have to be used, and the attempt w...
According to Gee & Gee (1999), delivering the best customer service includes: having the right attitude, understanding the customer’s needs, communicating clearly, taking action, and ensuring customer satisfaction. A professional approach and making the most of the opportunities for excellence that present themselves are advocated by Bonomo (2002).
I was eager to face challenging situations and resolve problems to the clients’ satisfaction. In one such situation, a client arrived in a hurry for a meeting. He introduced himself as X, a large-scale exporter of petroleum products from the United Kingdom. He wished to discuss and finalize a mutually beneficial contract related to the regular, wholesale purch...
Relevant information of methods used from the Multifactorial Attitudes Questionnaire, Kruskal- Wallis test to ordinal regression have been elaborated. The results, conclusions, and recommendations are clarified in the research work. Potential benefit is that it makes participants recognize that old need to be given care and inspire attitude change. The harm is that the participants may demand more from their employees relating to the topic. Approval of the Ethics Committee is noted. The findings are categorically explained. The themes include ageism, resources, professional esteem, and working environment. The findings have been explained under each sub-heading. The data have been presented with regard to each question an...
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