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Important Perspectives in Learning Theories - Case Study Example

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The paper 'Important Perspectives in Learning Theories' presents learning which is an in-detachable phenomenon in the life of human beings. From infant to elderly, human beings continue to learn as Plato said “education and admonition commence in the first years of childhood…
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Important Perspectives in Learning Theories
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Download file to see previous pages There are four important perspectives in learning theories, behaviorism, humanism, constructivism, and cognitivism.
In education, behaviorist theories maintain that learning is the result of ‘operant conditioning’ which is a process and both investigated and named by BF Skinner. The word ‘operant’ is used to explain the way in which the behavior of an individual operates in a particular person. According to behaviorism theory, the behavior of an individual may result either in punishment or in reinforcement. If the behavior results in reinforcement, then chances of same behavior occurring again are higher, at the same time, if a behavior results in punishment, then its chances of happening again are very remote. But we should remember that the issues related to punishment or reinforcement are quite complex. For instance, a punisher or reinforcer is identified within behaviorism by its effect on behavior. So, punishment may not be regarded as punishment if it does not result in the reduction of a specific behavior. Therefore, behaviorists generally concentrate on measurable changes in behavior.
‘Operant conditioning’ uses the consequences of behavior to alter the form of behavior and its occurrence. It basically deals with the modification of voluntary behavior. It generally, creates five consequences such as positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, negative punishment, and extinction.
It is important to note that it is not the individuals who are reinforced or punished; rather it is his or her response which is reinforced or punished. In ‘operant conditioning’ context, the terms positive and negative are, generally, not used in their popular meaning, but rather positive means to addition and negative refers to subtraction.
4. Negative punishment: -It occurs when a response (behavior) results in the removal of favorable stimulus which, results in a decrease in the frequency of that behavior. For example, taking away a Childs toy following an undesired behavior. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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