Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Critical commentary/child development - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Name and Number of the Course Date The Development of Companionship and Intimacy by Duane Buhrmester and Wyndol Furman, 1987 Introduction “Friendships can be defined as relationships that satisfy a number of specified social needs, for example, companionship, intimacy, and affection” (Bukowski et al…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER91.1% of users find it useful
Critical commentary/child development
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Critical commentary/child development"

Download file to see previous pages Among children, spending time together may be based on social preference or proximity; while playing together and having fun is a result of companionship (Bukowski et al. 1998, 74). Intimacy is defined as the outcome of a mutual, emotion-based relationship that is rooted in “reciprocal caring, closeness and involvement between equals” (Bagwell and Schmidt 2013, 77). Different relationships have differing dimensions of intimacy with distinctive characteristics. However, self-disclosure is a crucial component promoting closeness and commitment in all intimate friendships. Although companionship and intimacy develop from early childhood, during the transition to adolescence there is “an expansion in adolescents’ social networks as girls and boys increasingly turn to peers for intimacy, emotional support, and companionship” (Updegraff et al. 2002, 72). Thesis Statement: The purpose of this essay is to critique the target article by Buhrmester and Furman (1987), with respect to its important components. Two main arguments or points of critiques will be selected, and the validity of the claims will be determined with the help of relevant literature. 1. Summary of the Target Article The aim of the study by Buhrmester and Furman (1987) was to investigate the development of companionship and intimacy during early childhood, preadolescence and adolescence. The subjects were in the second, fifth, and eighth grades, with respective mean ages of 7.5, 10.4, and 13.4 years. Measuring the subjects’ assessment of companionship and intimacy at two levels; at the global level, subjects reported about their social relations in general. At the dyadic level, they reported about relations with up to eight specific people considered to be closest. Further, perceived frequency ratings assessed their perceptions of actual experience of companionship and intimacy. Results from the questionnaires indicate that in all the 3 grade levels companionship was perceived as a desired social provision. Family members were important providers of companionship for children in the second and fifth grades; but were less significant in the eighth grade. Starting with the second grade, same-sex peers were increasingly important providers of companionship; However, importance of companionship with opposite sex peers began from the eighth grade, state Buhrmester and Furman (1987). Similar to companionship, there were no age differences in the general/ global desire for intimacy. For the youngest children of mean age 7.5 years, parents were perceived as important providers of intimate disclosure, but were less important among preadolescents of mean age 10.4. The hypothesis of same-sex friends becoming important providers of intimacy during pre-adolescence was only partly supported by the evidence indicating that girls sought intimate disclosure at younger ages than boys. 2. Examining the Validity of the Main Points of Critiques 2.1. Summary of the Core Theory in the Target Article The main theory behind the work by Buhrmester and Furman (1987, 1101), is that of children’s social development. Companionship and intimacy are vital for the normal psycho-social development of children of all ages, and for all individuals through the life span. The criteria of companionship, intimacy and affection are also rooted in a theory of adult friendships (Bukowski et al. 1998, 74). Similarly, Sullivan’ ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Critical commentary/child development Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words”, n.d.)
Critical commentary/child development Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words. Retrieved from
(Critical commentary/Child Development Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words)
Critical commentary/Child Development Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words.
“Critical commentary/Child Development Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Critical commentary/child development

Leadership Development Experience

The nine-month certificate program which I completed at Leadership Institute of South Puget Sound combined academic study on leadership with practical development of leadership skills. Numerous community service activities such as involvement in Employee Community Fund (ECF), being a Child haven volunteer, Christian Center volunteer and a Junior Achievement Consultant have exposed me to situations which made me apply many skills such counseling young people, and motivating them to achieve their full potential, seeking solutions with expansive thinking and application of flexibility and quick responsiveness. My involvement in Christian Center had specially sharpened my crisis management skills by participating in natural disaster m...
13 Pages(3250 words)Assignment

Child Labor

The historical record of child labor statistics shows that child labor was at its peak in the USA in 1910. In 1880 there were 1,118,356 (or 16.5%) children between ten to fifteen years of age who were involved in strenuous physical work. In 1900 their number rose to 1,750, 178 (or 18.2%). In 1910 the number yet again rose to a record height of 1,990,225 or 18.4% (Fuller, 1923). Although the situation has improved a lot still even today America is not free from the evil of child labor. In a prosperous country like the USA, approximately 500,000 children work in the fields every day. These include children as young as five years old who work approximately 70 hours a week to support their families economically (Children in the Fields...
12 Pages(3000 words)Assignment

Maternal Employment and Child Well-Being

Through the course of history, it can be observed that the role of the female members of the population is continuously being leveled to that of the male, thus, in terms of the number of employees and organizational positions that are being held by women, the change is evident.  It can be considered that upon the achievement of the women to have equal opportunity to work and excel in the career of choice, the number of labor participation had increased. To be able to determine and present the objectives of the study, it is important to consider different issues that are related to the topic at hand. The main basis of the said notion is on the basis of different reasons such as in terms of the economic, family and social aspec...
12 Pages(3000 words)Literature review

Leadership: a Critical Construction

I experienced all the theories by different writers by working on them practically. While working in a group, I found out communication plays a very important role in group performance. Team working, communication and leadership, all are very important in group working and a group cannot work and perform successfully in the absence of these skills and because of these skills being poor. During my work, I found out communication, whether it is written communication, verbal communication or face-to-face communication, is very important in all its forms because it is only because of communication that we are able to deliver our messages and ideas to each other.
Leadership also plays an important role because a leader is required...
11 Pages(2750 words)Personal Statement

The Role of Mass Media in the Development of Aggression

Despite the fact that longitudinal studies have proven that human aggression is to some extent an unwavering trait, it is undeniable that the environment plays a big role in influence the aforementioned behavior (Slaby & Roedell, 1982). Our daily encounter with the environment is a form of socialization that is defined as the process of integrating within oneself a sense of connection to a larger social world by means of discovering, understanding and adopting the beliefs, values, and norms of culture of other people. To a certain extent, sociologists consider the mass media as a powerful socializing agent as its significance is not constrained to the content alone of the media messages. Instead, it affects how we learn a...
10 Pages(2500 words)Report

The Effect of Democracy on Chinese Development

Any country first needs to go through economic liberalization and political liberalization before finally settling into a stable democratic situation. Democracy should not at any one point be viewed as if it were socialism, but should be seen as a means of promoting economic development through accountability and protection of individual lawful rights and interests...accountability in the sense that the respective leaders are able to fight corruption, enhance social harmony, strengthen public trust and more importantly empower government institutions that are directly in touch with the people (Liu, 2008, p.1-2). Owing to the Chinese well informed and affluent society on top of having a very dynamic economy, the political change wh...
7 Pages(1750 words)Coursework

Variety of Child Play Therapy

The need for the procedure had been stressed due to the abundance of children who had experienced trauma or even any form of neglect. The study then includes the victims of abuse, domestic violence and even lack of needed attention while the child is growing up. To be able to lessen such effects in the lives of the children, the said types of therapy are continuously developed (Barnes, p. 40).
There are different ways to be able to help a child. These constitute the provision of emotional care which can answer the needs of the child in different aspects most especially the emotional and behavioural facets. For example, the simple act of making sounds and having eye contact with another person during the period of infancy can...
7 Pages(1750 words)Case Study

Analysis of the Methods of 3 Research Papers about Child Abuse

Research ethics was maintained as the identity of the individuals participating was kept secret. As far as the validity of the study was concerned, the researchers attempted to use content validity in order to get an accurate response. The content validity focused on measuring off the ethnicities and gender percentages within the area and attempting to get a random sample of individuals via the phone. Their approach to random calling allowed for a significant random sample in the study. There were a few issues, however, with this type of approach. Those answering the phone sometimes were not always the desired individual, and not all of the desired people were surveyed. Different replacements did have to be used, and the attempt w...
6 Pages(1500 words)Literature review

Critical Review of Goth: Identity, Style and Subculture by Paul Hodkinson

The allure from this standpoint is seen by the author. This report measures mainly the methodology that Hodkinson uses, which is grounded theory research, and the report also examines questions of fixed vs. flexible research. The findings of the research are briefly presented before the current research investigation concludes.

The Goth subculture is founded on principles of viewing some of what society outside this subculture, or mainstream culture, views as abhorrent or negative. There is some fetish tendency in this subculture towards the macabre and death, with face-paint style makeup and mourning clothing being prominent features of belongingness, which are certainly not reflective of mainstream fashion and makeup....
6 Pages(1500 words)Book Report/Review

International Law: Child Soldiers

Using children to fight wars is not only morally abhorrent but very bad very the physical and mental health of the children in question. That is in part why a series of international laws and treaties have come into effect to try to deal with this scourge. But the issue is more complicated than that. While child soldiers are victims of war crimes, they too can also perpetrate serious breaches of the law of armed conflict. Under normal circumstances, individuals who commit such acts, be they combatants or not,2 would be vulnerable to prosecution. However, because children in such situations are victims as well as perpetrators and because of the special protections afforded to children under international law, many have questioned w...
8 Pages(2000 words)Case Study
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Critical commentary/child development for FREE!

Contact Us