Philosophy as a sphere of knowledge has undergone various transformations over time. This is attributable to the facts and information that is added to this body of knowledge by a host of emergent philosophical thinkers. …
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Nonetheless, the initial facts and issue act as a basement upon which new knowledge is based. Thus emergent thinkers simply contribute new ideas to the body of knowledge. To a great extent, such ideas are reflective of the modern day experiences and way of life. One of the philosophical concepts that have been accorded great attention by a significant percentage of the philosophers pertains to the concept of self. Notably, this has undergone various transformations and has been shaped and molded by varied perceptions that were put forth by the philosophers. Seemingly, the most important contribution to this notion was made by the two great thinkers; Sigmund Freud and Michael Foucault. Although their approaches differed considerably, their critical approach to the notion of self was not only insightful but also very informative. It is against this background that this paper explains why the two great thinkers did not trust the notion of the self. To enhance a harmonic consideration, it begins by explaining the notion of self and the developments that it has undergone since its suggestion. Essentially, the notion of self concept is all encompassing and comprises of dynamic and organized attitudes, beliefs and opinions that an individual perceives to be true about his or her self. These from a philosophical view point are also imperative in defining one’s personal existence as well as history. In essence, it seeks to explain how or what an individual considers himself to be. It is an objective standpoint that goes a long way in defining who a person is in light of his past as well as present experiences. It differs considerably from the concepts of self esteem and self report. While the former underscores feelings related to enhancement of personal worth and attainment of self fulfillment, the latter constitutes the amount of information that an individual may be willing to disclose about the self. Foucault at this point refers to the concept of self as ‘life being aware of it self” (Foucault, 1979, p. 54). Historical evidence ascertains that the concept of self was put forth by Rene Descartes in 1644 (Ryan, Short & Weed, 1986, p. 527). In this text, he argued that the aspect of doubt was an important principle of self inquiry. For an individual to attain an objection perception of one self, he needed to doubt the self. Doubt in this respect would enable him to understand his strengths, weaknesses and make an objective evaluation of his capabilities. Using it, individuals would be able to understand and appreciate themselves. Existence according to his point of view was greatly influences by perception. This knowledge was later extended by Freud who explored the aspect of internal mental processes. In particular, he detailed the importance of the individual internal thinking processes and further analyzed the aspects of self interpretation. As indicated earlier, Foucault perceived the concept of self in light of being able to understand and appreciate the abilities and capabilities of one self. Understanding these required a critical evaluation of all the aspects of an individual. In essence, it entailed a full understanding of oneself and relative capabilities, strengths and weaknesses. Of great importance to self understanding however was to know the meaning of living. Previous philosophers have in some cases related this to the spiritual notion of Christianity. At this point, it cannot be disputed that some Christian concepts greatly advocate for the practice of self renunciation. The individual in this regard is able to understand
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His work and findings revolved around human psyche including the ID, Ego, Superego, dream interpretation, personality, clinical psychology and many more. Initial Studies Freud studied medicine at the University of Vienna and got his doctorate in 1981. Soon he got fascinated with the emotional disorder in humans called hysteria.
He initially began focusing his studies on psychology and psychopathology. In fact, his findings turned into a book he wrote Mental Illness and Psychology (“Foucault”). But Foucault decided to return to philosophy, or the history of ideas, as the focal point of his career.
M. Jose, was an interesting example for me when I went through the psychological concepts of Oedipus Complex and psychoneurotic theory. May be it’s quite unimaginative for many, but he liked his mother to always accompany him to the school even after he is more than 14.
Client’s Name: Course: 7 February 2012 Sigmund Freud was a great psychologist, he founded psychology and the theories found by him have helped in solving several problems in adults. This paper will shed light upon how he presents aggression in his book Civilization.
According to Nuland (2011), Freud has given his life for the study of cocaine. However, his studies when applied to others had resulted to disastrous effects which unfortunately stained his good name. Although cocaine brought few uses, too much intake can lead to addiction and later overdose which can be fatal.
Foucault's work on subjectivity, governmentality and space has been highly influential in shaping an understanding of the relationship between issues of space and identity. Foucault developed the theory of disciplinary power in which he describes the unique relationship between the process of madness and the process of being imprisoned.
While these factors are often used to analyze common individuals, and those with psychological disorders, in this essay they will be used to asses the character traits of the distinguished father of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud. With all of the studies Freud published throughout his life, and all of his acclaimed accomplishments, it is more difficult to find any information on his personal life, than sources evaluating his psychological arguments.
Freud got his doctorate degree in the field of medicine in 1881. Some of his early works related to the fields of medicine and psychology include research on cerebral palsy, publication of ‘Studies on Hysteria’ in 1895,
However he also gave the theory of unconscious motivations and unconscious dynamics that had a pervasive and profound influence on humanity. Freud suggested three cognitive systems of human personality that are
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