During physical activities, these students can be able to coordinate and perform various combinations of movements in games. Physical development also includes the ability of the students to take part in fitness activities, and choose activities that develop various parts of the body. …
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The child also develops intellectually and is able to manage time, set goals and priorities, understand different meanings of words and develop morally. The child develops social skills including attempting to solve problems on their own. The child also tries to form social relationships and make lasting friendships (Morin, 2012).
Jean Piaget explained the stages of a child’s cognitive development, which include the sensor motor stage occurring between birth and two years of age, preoperational stage from two to seven years, concrete operational stage starting from seven to eleven years, and formal operational stage occurring from adolescence to adulthood. Fourth grade students are in Piaget’s concrete operational stage of cognitive development. At this stage, students learn how to use logic appropriately. They demonstrate intelligence by manipulating symbols systematically and logically. They are also able to make sensible decisions and think hypothetically about observable objects. Children at this stage can also sort objects according to shape, size or color. They can also recognize the relationships between things in a sequential order. Moreover, they are able to classify objects depending on characteristics such as size or appearance. The child also understands that some objects can be changed to different states and reversed again, for instance, the deflation and inflation of a ball (Shaffer and Kipp, 2009). The child also goes through social development. Erik Erikson explained eight stages of psychosocial development, from birth to adulthood. Fourth grade students are at the industry versus inferiority stage. It occurs between the ages of approximately five to eleven years. At this stage, children develop pride in their abilities through social interactions. It is an important stage for developing self-confidence. At this stage, children are given opportunities to gain the recognition of their parents or teachers. For instance, they can be asked to draw, solve problems or write sentences. If they do them correctly, they are commended for their achievements. If teachers and parents commend and encourage children at this age, they will believe in their skills and have a feeling of competence. However, those children who are not encouraged by parents or teachers, but are punished and ridiculed instead will begin to doubt their abilities and develop low self-esteem (Underwood and Rosen, 2011). Lev Vigotsky’s socio-cultural theory explains that learning is a social process and human beings get their intelligence from the society. A child’s social interactions play an essential role in cognitive development. Vigotsky’s theory suggests that students should learn in an environment that is socially interactive. The learning environment should be supported with discussions, computers, problem solving, and collaborative writing, among others (Shaffer, 2008). By having knowledge on the social, intellectual and physical development of students, I will be able to teach more effectively in future. Teaching students at the concrete operational stage will involve the use of concrete visual aids to explain complicated ideas to them. I will also use familiar examples to explain complicated concepts and give the students a chance to manipulate objects. I will give students assignments that will require them to think analytically and logically. I will ask them to practice classifying ideas and objects. I will apply Erikson’
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With the passage of time, education’s significance is perpetuating. It upholds the framework of a country’s development and defines the quality of output by the workforce and the productivity rate as well. There has been a considerable interest by the researchers regarding individual’s psychology, motivation factors, behavior, and attitude in different environments.
Principally, the term can be best described by considering the meaning of each of the words used. The term environmental is used to describe the nature of the surrounding. It can be natural surroundings, social surrounding, built environment, learning environments, political surrounding, economical, technological surrounding and informational environment.
In determining which measurement tools to use, a researcher has two things to consider, is the tool valid and reliable (McLeod, Harrison, & McCormack, 2012, p. 649). Validity and reliability are two terms commonly used when discussing measurements in research.
ow best to instruct his/her students based upon their particular age or developmental levels, the theorist I believe has been most helpful to teachers is Lev Vygotsky. Lev Semenovich Vygotsky (1896-1934) was a Russian psychologist interested in studying child development,
3). Bartol and Bartol (20008, p. 3) pointed out that “forensic science involves the application of scientific knowledge to legal problems” (Bartol and Bartol, 2008, p. 3). According to Bartol and Bartol (2008), psychology is one such science and there are two definitions of forensic psychology: the narrow and the broad definitions.
This is mainly associated to the immigrants within an integrated community. Taking this into consideration, therefore, means that being multicultural entails providing equity to all cultures in a society, and no cultural or ethnic group should be completely dominant.
This study, Educational Psychology, was done with 66 high school students in the spring of their second year and following up with the practice test in the fall of their third year. The study concluded that MC and implementation intervention improved goal setting outcomes for students in adolescence.
Categories represented are interactive, learner active, environment active and passive (Annan, Bowler, Mentis, and Somerville). Among some of the more well-known theories are Piaget, Erickson, Wegner, Pavlov, Darwin and Gesselt. Those which this paper intends to explore are Bandura, Skinner and Tolman, respectively.
He started the study of natural science in 1870. He had a major interest in the study of physiology and natural science. During his study, he was instrumental in the formation of the department of physiology and helped nature it for the next 45 years that
A song like, “ghetto child” by Robert Kelly has both racial and economic connotations. The common usage of the word ghetto is usually in reference to an urban inner city where the residents are primarily black. The
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