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Validity, Reliability, and Accuracy - Term Paper Example

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The assessment covers a comprehensive analysis of the text’s reliability, accuracy and validity. It then encompasses arguments about the proposals of avoiding four errors involving: the test, test administration, test scoring and the test takers. …
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Validity, Reliability, and Accuracy
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Our essay is, otherwise, based on: management, its five functions and its essence in various institutions. Management is an element that forms the core of many organizations or institutions. It is not restricted to large companies but also to small entrepreneurs and non- profit institutions. It possesses a large history of growth and improvement. Due to the modification and ever altering conceptualization of management, it has been perceived more largely. It, thus, is defined largely as comprising of five elements. Management can either be a science or an art of fulfilling common goals of a group through efficiency and effectiveness of utility of resources. The five elements are; planning, organizing, controlling, staffing and directing. In a case of absence of one of the pillars, management can become cumbersome and lead to eventual failure of an organization. This type of management usually involves strategic elements.Management shares vital elements of a group of people and resource utility. It is essential to note that management possesses different levels in such a way that other managers report to senior managers. Before discussing these five branches of management, it is important to look at few other elements of management or managers. This helps one conceptualize and understand the scope of management. To begin with, the roles of a manager cover three ideals. These roles provide the foundation for the five tasks of management. A manager is supposed to handle roles that concern the relationship and links of employees. In addition, a manager is supposed to carry out the roles of ensuring correct and timely information to the organization. Lastly, a manager should ensure rational and timely decision construction in the organization. Apart form those skills, management necessitates political skills in harnessing power and control. In addition, it requires conceptualization skills in understanding complicated situations. Moreover, it requires good personal relation skills and diagnostic skills in achieving the right response to difficult scenarios. The first pillar of management is planning. The art of planning, as applied to business environments, shares in its literal concept. It is the act of creating a plan and devising ways of accomplishing its components. It also shares in forecasting which the act of envisaging the future and creating a strategy to achieve certain tasks as per the prediction (Tibergien and Pommering 13). Planning involves formation of objectives and their particular strategies. A good plan should, however, be flexible to assist accompany contemporary situations. A good plan should also evaluate existing resources available to a given organization and realize whether those resources can pedal the objectives (Marquis and Houston 35). A good plan has, therefore, to be realistic. Closely related to this, a plan should focus on a realistic frame of time. The second element of management is organizing. Primarily, organizing, as applicable to organization, suggests activities of arranging various elements into a proper order. As applied to organizations, it covers minor functions of; delegation of work and specialization, goal focus, divisions and differentiation (Marquis and Houston 35). Division of work is the task of giving organization’s duty to the in an entity or to a given individual. When a given task is assigned to a single professional or an individual, then this aspect is referred to as specialization. Organization also encompasses ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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