Theory of Multiple intelligences Name Institution Theory of Multiple Intelligences First postulated by Dr Howard Gardner in 1983, the theory of multiple intelligences suggests that there are eight different intelligences the influence the learning potential of children and adults, as well…
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Such test scores would then be inferred against a predetermined rating which is supported through statistical techniques. The statistical techniques relate the responses issued by the subjects of different ages. The relating of the scores across ages and across various tests is based on the notion that intelligence is constant and does not change age experience or training (Gardner, 2006). In other words, intelligence is an inborn characteristic of individuals. Gardner pluralized the traditional intelligence concept leading to a new definition and educational approaches. Intelligence becomes the ability to process a specific kind of information. This ability originates within the humans psychological and biological make up (Gardner, 2006). These intelligences consist an ability to solve problems of create products that are a result of one’s cultural and community settings. Gardner came up with eight intelligences, which are linguistic intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence, spatial intelligence, bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, musical intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence, and naturalist intelligence. Musical intelligence involves sensitivity to music. It is evident through sensitivity to tones, sounds, rhythms and other musical components. According to Gardner (2006), people who have this intelligence have the ability to compose music, sing and play musical instruments. They have a good pitch and sometimes an absolute pitch. Bodily- kinesthetic intelligences involve the capacity to use one’s entire body or parts of the body to handle challenges. One uses mental ability to coordinate body parts/movement to solve problems (Smith, 2008). Logical-mathematical intelligence comprises of the ability to perform logical analysis of problems, conduct mathematical calculations and examine phenomenon scientifically. The individual can reason deductively, detect patterns and thinking logically. It is often associated with mathematical reasoning (Smith, 2008). Linguistic intelligence is characterized by sensitivity to language, both spoken and written. It concerns the ability to acquire or learn languages, and us a language to achieve certain goals (Smith, 2008). This includes ability to use a language as a means for remembering information, and ability to express oneself poetically or rhetorically using a language. Examples of people with these skills include lawyers, poets, speakers and writers among others. Spatial intelligence, on the other hand, comprises the capacity to identify and utilize patterns of open space and confided areas. Interpersonal intelligence is people oriented intelligence, which is consists ability to understand other people’s desires, motivations and intentions. It facilitates coexistence of people. As Smith (2008) Notes, salespeople, counselors, political and religious leaders, and teachers thrive on strong interpersonal intelligence. Intrapersonal intelligence is made up of the ability for self awareness. It involves understanding oneself and appreciating personal feelings, motivations and fears. It also entails developing a working model of ourselves and ability to use such models for self regulation purposes (Smith, 2008). Finally, naturalistic intelligence
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The theory of multiple intelligences is one of cognitive functioning which proposes that all people have capacities in the eight different intelligences. The intelligences work differently for different people in different complexities. Gardner does not believe that intelligence can be assessed by a mere number as the Intelligence quotient did.
Education scholars and psychologists agree that learning is contextual and it is built upon and shaped by what an individual or group of individuals already know (Gardner and Moran, 2006). There are various styles of learning among humans: training, personal development and schooling.
The Multiple Intelligence (MI) Theory of Gardner can be viewed as the mechanism that stimulates learners to encourage positive response from learners, skills, and knowledge related to healthy living and the factor that unite social workers, community advocates, educators, and school administrators to advance health education (Sternberg & Williams, 1998).
Upon understanding the basic concept of the theory in detail, the sociologists, educationists, and psychologists of that time found it to be very useful in learning and teaching the core aspects of human behavior, personality development, and human intelligence.
Gardner’s theory renders the conventional means of judging an individual’s intelligence by means of specific IQ tests meaningless in that they are only a tool to measure one or two of the numerous shades of
Gardner illustrated seven issues for intelligence behavior: unique developmental progression, presence of savants, prodigies or other exceptional individuals, supported by psychometric results or experimental psychology, brain isolation potential due to
A teacher is most probably using those in his/her own teaching. However, students are benefiting most in the classroom where a teacher is employing tasks and assignments to develop different intelligences. Importance of multiple intelligences can be better described with the help of Howard Gardner statement: It is of the utmost importance that we recognize and nurture all of the varied human intelligences, and all of the combinations of intelligences.
The author suggested that these intelligences existed in everyone; this challenged the traditional view that there were only two types of intelligences, and this has given a new perspective to cognitive sciences. Gardner referred to intelligence as 'the capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one cultural setting.
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