Some proficient readers may take the ability to read with proficiency for granted, but learning to read with proficiency is a long-term developmental process that involves many interventions and contributions of various kinds (Clark, 2004). This is geared towards personal…
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se of reading difficulties, how to assess reading difficulties, remedy for struggling readers, and the extent to which struggling readers can be remediated. Struggling readers experience problems in multiple areas. It is important to compare students suspected to have reading difficulties with others in order to clearly identify a child who is struggling to read. Why all the efforts to help struggling readers? Experts in entirely all disciplines are continually searching for the most effective methods to master the necessary skills in order to succeed, reading skills are not an exception. Children are introduced to many things at a tender age to increase the chances of mastering skills early enough that boosts the chances of being successful. The stage a child should begin learning to read has been a prevalent question in most people especially parents. Reading difficulties may at any stage and this calls for early intervention measures. This paper seeks to explore on reading difficulties, their causes and possible interventions.
Identification of struggling readers is very important. Most struggling readers can only be helped if early interventions are made through the development of early reading skills. Delays in the identification of such readers results in a delay in the provision of appropriate and effective reading instruction. Assessment of learners can easily identify struggling learners. Such an assessment may involve text reading in combination with other aspects as student’s performance on measures like word reading and automatic word recognition. Assessment of a students knowledge on the alphabets, phonemic awareness, processing of phonologies, vocabulary reading and reading fluency are key in the identification of struggling readers. Early identification prevents persistence of reading problems making the problem more complex and lowering reading related attitudes and motivation. Word level processing skills form of identification emphasis on
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Descriptors: Tutoring Program, Intervention, Reading Strategies, Reading Difficulty, Reading Comprehension, Reading Instruction, Standardized Tests. It has been said that third grade reading scores on standardized tests are used to determine how many prisons that will eventually be built in the state of Florida.
Reading Fluency Strategies for Home and School
Reading is a challenge for many students, and those who struggle in this area realize very quickly that school is much harder for them. Therefore, this paper will discuss some of the techniques available to help struggling readers achieve better fluency and comprehension when they read, thereby improving their overall academic performance.
You don’t expect to start reading about an old lady who everyone is half-terrified of even though she’s rarely been seen outside of her large decaying house. The narrator also doesn’t seem to be necessarily a young man, or even a single person. It
At the root of all these programs is the belief that struggling readers have traditionally been low achievers, "lacking cognitive competencies which may include reading comprehension, study skills, word recognition and reading fluency" (Guthrie & Davis). However, in the present study, the author contends that apart from cognitive abilities, how teachers and students approach required textbook reading and its assimilation will also be influenced by "the social and cultural contexts of the classroom".
It is not enough to teach children to read - they must also enjoy reading voluntarily. As the author puts it, "If you teach children to read, then you know [that] the amount of reading children do is important." Most schools have a wide range of incentive programs like the 'Pizza Hut Book It!
was found that “early interventions led to significantly better outcomes than the same interventions begun later in kindergarten” (O’Connor, 2008). It was also found that English only and English learners exhibited similar rates of growth. This shows the importance of
Education in the United States is highly decentralized, and the federal government and Department of Education are not heavily involved in determining curriculum or educational standards. The job of centralization and coordination has been left to large private educational foundations.
These strategies include bottom-up strategies (such as phonics and look-and-say) and top-down strategies (such as extensive reading, use of context and pictorial clues). Much of the support for eclecticism comes from first-language texts. They have to be drawn upon to guide practice in the teaching of reading to young second-language pupils in primary classrooms as the Teaching English to Young Pupils (TEYL) literature is relatively limited, although some useful texts are available (Moon, 2000).
The author states that multisensory teaching helps in improving cognitive functions such as thinking, decision making, perception, comprehension, and phonological memory. Intervention programs facilitate the improvement of reading skills through the improvement of phonological awareness, memory, and visual processes.
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