Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Concept Of Reciprocity In Discourse - Assignment Example

Comments (1) Cite this document
Before examining the concept of reciprocity as it applies to a speech situation let us look at the origin and meaning of the word ‘reciprocity’. It is derived from the Latin word ‘ reciprocus’, which means ‘alternating’. It contains the prefixes ‘re—‘ ( back ) and ‘pro-‘ ( forward ). …
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER91.1% of users find it useful
Concept Of Reciprocity In Discourse
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Concept Of Reciprocity In Discourse"

Download file to see previous pages These morphemes imply some kind of a back and forth movement. ‘Reciprocity’ is also related to feedback, interaction and causality. In a speech situation when a speaker puts across his message, the hearer listens to it and signals that he has heard it. This is the feedback. This takes place constantly between the speaker and the listener, and there is interaction among them. The response of a speaker depends upon what he hears. The speech is a cause and the response is the effect. Hence, there is causality involved in reciprocity.
2. Concept Of Reciprocity In Discourse
A speech situation involves a speaker and a listener. “Reciprocity condition of speech refers to the relation between the speaker and the listener in the process of speech.” ( Bygate, 1987 ) Speech is a reciprocal activity. At this point, it is necessary to differentiate between speech and writing. The way language is organized in speech is different from the way it is organized in writing. In order to speak fluently, a speaker must have grammatical competency which includes knowledge of vocabulary, pronunciation, sentence structure and meaning. But speaking does not mean merely putting together words in a grammatical structure. The capacity to use language appropriately is called communicative competence. It is the knowledge that underlines the use of grammatical competence in communicative situations. Speech situation consists of various factors like topic, purpose, social relations, environment etc. These differ from culture to culture and community to community. In short, “speaking is not a discrete skill. It overlaps a number of other areas. Structure of conversation is culturally determined.” ( Hughes, R., 2002 ) Now let us look closely at what happens when two people speak. The speaker has a message which he encodes and transmits to the listener through speech. The listener listens to the speech and decodes the message. The listener then responds in the same way, by transmitting a message. Hence, the speaker becomes the listener and vice versa. An individual takes turns at being a speaker and a listener alternately. This is called ‘turn taking’. In a speech event, the participants are face-to-face and the turn-taking is a continuous process. Hence, we see that casual conversations are also organized by rules. People take turns at speaking and listening, they answer questions, mark the beginning and end of a conversation, make mistakes and correct themselves. All this needs some kind of direction and control on the part of the speakers. People do not say – I have finished now. You can answer my question. Conversations are organized covertly and the organizational principles provide a discreet interactional framework. It is within this framework that reciprocity takes place. “Reciprocity develops during the ongoing negotiation of meaning between speaker and listener, thus producing a joint construction of communication.” ( Byrne D., 1987 ) Reciprocity involves the use of turn-taking skills, strategies to interrupt and to control the topic, which are necessary to maintain meaningful interaction. During conversations, individuals follow norms like politeness principles and co-operative principles. They also reciprocate each others’ verbal and non-verbal behavior. In a social intercourse, people are obligated to help and not to harm those who help them. Social activity is also reciprocal and ubiquitous. The ability to appropriately reciprocate or compensate a partner’s communicative response is an essential element of communicative ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Concept Of Reciprocity In Discourse Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved de
(Concept Of Reciprocity In Discourse Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 Words)
“Concept Of Reciprocity In Discourse Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (1)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
zanderhowe added comment 11 months ago
Student rated this paper as
I never thought 2250 words essay could be written in such a free manner. I loved the content of this essay. Will definitely use it for my own work!

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Concept Of Reciprocity In Discourse

Critical Discourse

...the understanding of discourse analysis. Additionally, it is generally accepted as an explicit method within the perspective of humanities and social sciences. As such, this critical discourse can be used for obtaining proper insight into the way discourse reproduces social and political inequality, power and domination (Rogers, 2003). Therefore, it can be said that critical discourse analysis is not limited to the specific structures of language but it is also responsible for relating all these concepts to the structure of sociopolitical context (Garfinkle, 2006). Methodology of CDA Conversation Analysis Conversation analysis may be described as an...
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay

Principle of Persuasuin: Reciprocity

It is evidently clear from the discussion that given that the principle of reciprocity accepts the idea that it is a universal rule to oblige a person to treat other people the way he/she prefers to be treated by other people, future obligation of the recipient to repay whatever he/she received from other people (i.e. gifts, political or business favor, or any forms of exchange or actions that are beneficial to the entire community) is often considered as a future investment. Based on the principle of reciprocity, the use of this persuasive strategy can make other people feel that they owe people something for what they received. For this reason, there is a high risk wherein th...

4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Reciprocity and extensive reading

...of the world’s population into part-time users of English. Thus, experts all over the world have developed strategies and approaches to language teaching that would best address the problems on L2 learning and teaching. One of the outcomes of the Communicative Language Teaching is interactive listening and speaking: negotiating Meaning through Questioning-Answering Routines. This is also known as reciprocal teaching (Murcia 2006:13-27). The concept of Reciprocal Teaching is based on the concept of Reciprocity. In communication, there is what we call taking-turns. A variety of question-types can be used: repetition, paraphrasing, verification,...
16 Pages(4000 words)Assignment

Reciprocity Network

...?Topic: Recipro Network Introduction Recipro network is the symbiotic relationship between networks. It provides a medium for different people to relate and exchange ideas through various network channels (Kilduff & Tsai 16). These types of networks are important as they help in connecting different business organization as well as people from various parts of the world. It makes the globe a small unit where it is easy to navigate from one area to another. Migration is not only based on locomotion movement but people can migrate and share ideas with people who are distant apart without physically moving from where they are located. Social networks are the most common networks affiliated with reciprocity. The U.S is a good example... or their...
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper

Reciprocity network

... 2nd May, Recipro Network: Do People in the U.S form Recipro Networks? Recipro applies to several concepts that can be used to explain it exhaustively. However, in general, reciprocity is simply a cooperative or mutual exchange of various forms of privileges or favors. The social-norm of reciprocity is a unified expectation that a certain group of people will always respond to each other in ways that are similar ("Introduction to Social Network Methods:  Chapter 8:  More Properties of Networks and Actors." 8). This implies that a show of kindness and gifts from other people are responded to with exactly similar benevolence but of their own. Likewise, harmful or negative acts and behavior from others are responded to with expected... that...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Discourse Analysis

...? Dis Analysis Dis Analysis This is a study to look into advertisements of beauty products in magazines from a critical discourse analysis perspective. We shall pay close attention to the strategy and how the agencies use language in these advertisements to influence and win over their clients. A qualitative research on advertisements by one of the leading beauty product producers was conducted. The results showed that advertisers use various techniques to manipulate customers into purchasing their products. This kind of advertising spills over into other industries such as the retail industry and is not only localized to beauty products. These advertisements promote an ideal way of life and manipulate the audience into...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Discourse community

...of the soccer discourse community. The members in this discourse community value intercommunication in the soccer field where the team manager provides information and feedback and the referee ensures fair play. Conclusion In conclusion, I establish that discourse community is a very important concept that refers to a group of people who possess a common language, social norms, characteristics, basic values, patterns, or practices for purposes of communication and establishing an identity for the members of a specific discourse community. Notably, members in any discourse community must have the required level of expertise in the common...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Tocquevilles Concept of Social Reciprocity in the Democratic Age

...Tocqueville's Concept of Social Recipro in the Democratic Age In the early nineteenth century, Alexis de Tocqueville, a liberal whose deepest commitment was to human freedom, believed that political democracy and social equality would, inevitably, replace the aristocratic institutions of Europe. He analyzed the American attempt to have both liberty and equality in terms of what lessons Europe could learn from American successes and failures. He returned from the United States on a trip to study the contemporary penal system apparently awed by the political interest and civic engagement of Americans as a people and impressed by the social trust and confidence they had in one another. In Democracy in America, he vividly describes... -over...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Written Discourse

...of their reasons write a cohesive opinion paragraph that includes a topic sentence giving their opinion, two or three sentences giving reasons supported by evidence for their opinion, and a concluding sentence. 3.2.2 Pre-writing video + cluster diagram The first step is to gain students’ interest in the topic, and to do this the teacher draws a cluster diagram or concept map on the board with the word ‘pollution’ in the center; students are then asked to take 2 minutes in silence thinking about what they know about pollution; they are not allowed to write or speak but close their eyes and consider what pollution means to them. Students then view a short video depicting a variety of pollution types prominent in...
16 Pages(4000 words)Essay

Discourse community

...Mohammed Al-Temimi Lisa Spears ENGL 1020 19 November Introduction The military uses practically the same dis within all its ranks to maintain strict discipline and perpetuate its traditions. In the same way I had explored the military language in my previous paper, I will now expound on some of the unique aspects of this select group of discourse community. I can speak from direct experience since I had once served in the military and knows where I speak of. It is not a bit surprising that when military men meet without even introducing their backgrounds, they can instantly know that this guy comes from a military background. There is a certain universality in the language that transcends national boundaries and specific dialects... . It is a...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Assignment on topic Concept Of Reciprocity In Discourse for FREE!

Contact Us