Table of Contents Introduction 2 Competence: Its Several Definitions and Usage 4 Competence and Its Approaches 9 Behavioural Approach. Initially, cognitive tests were used to ascertain the probability of connection and success between the person and the job (Russ-Eft 1995)…
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The competency test is aimed to measure job success, which cognitive tests failed to do. In this sense, competency tests were seen as an alternative to traditional cognitive tests (Delmare and Winterton 2005). On the other hand, Barnett and Depinet (1991) argued that cognitive tests are capable of predicting job success. They cited the work of Hunter (1986) which claimed that cognitive tests do predict job success. Nonetheless, what is necessary in this discourse is the supposition that competency tests were developed in order to measure the fit between the person and the job success (McClelland 1994). 10 Functional Approach. The functional approach is competent –based approach, and it follows the United Kingdom tradition (Delamare Le Deist and Winterton 2005). This approach is based on the consultation among employees, employers, trade unions, scholars, academicians, regulating and professional bodies with the aim of developing an occupational standard across a particular occupational group (Rolls 1997). There is a lead organization that the government organises that serve as the steering committee. 13 Holistic and Multi-Dimensional/Integrated Approach (H-MD/I approach). This approach tackles the issues and concerns of competence not only from the perspective of the individual, organisation, action, and job function, but it also deals with the influence of external factors to the understanding of competence (Hager 2013; Gonzci 2013). This approach develops in three countries in Europe, namely, Spain, Germany, and Austria. It is significant to note that this approach develop in Europe with minimal influence from McClelland (Delamare Le Deist and Winterton 2005). On the other hand, Hager and Gonzci in Australia develop the holistic and multidimensional approach, which is also called as integrated approach. Hager and Gonzci works are hallmark in the field and their contributions have transformed the landscape of vocational education and training. 16 Conclusion 23 References 27 Competence: what does it mean? Introduction In the past few decades, the notion of competence has gained prominence in the fields of management and education. In the sphere of management, competence has been used in developing standards that will provide organisations strategic competitive advantage (Campbell and Sommer Lochs 1997; Nadler and Tushman 1999). Whereas, in education, it has been used in the development of vocational education and training (Mulder, Weigel, and Collins 2006). The ‘popularity of competence’ (Mulder et al. 2006) is based on the supposition that it aligns education and training with the demands and needs of the labour market (Boon and van der Klink 2002). Thus, it assists employees and employers in responding to the changes and challenges brought by technological innovation, lifelong learning policies, and employment strategies (Delamare Le Deist and Winterton 2005). In this context, competence is now considered as the hallmark of a successful manager, teacher, nurse, waiter, crane driver, and sales person (Beckett 2004, p.495). As such, competence plays an integral role in understanding the contemporary dynamics of labour market and business environment. Human competence is the “heart of economic competition” (Tatangang 2011, p. 549). However, it is observed that there is no universal agreement among scholars regarding a common definition that may be attributed to the concept of competence (Ha
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