Title Author’s Name Institutional Affiliation Assessment of ADHD Medical assessment Medical assessment of ADHD starts with a diagnosis based the behavior of a person followed by an assessment to find out the possible causes of such behavior. First, behaviors are assessed to find out if they are within the scope of normal limits…
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This stage of assessment is not common in general clinical practice. It requires assessment conducted by Health Professionals trained in Medicine, Psychology, Psychophysiology and Clinical Neuroscience or Nutritional and Environmental medicine. The assessment may include brain function evaluation through neuro-imaging, investigation of diet, nutrition and sensitivities to food. Tests may be conducted to determine the causes of metabolic dysfunctions, recurrent abdominal upsets and chronic ear, nose and throat infections which are probable causes of brain dysfunction and consequently abnormal behaviors and attention deficits (Brown, 2005, p. 21). Rating scales and check lists Rating scales and checklists assist clinicians to obtain information from teachers, parents and others about functioning and symptoms in different settings, which is important for a sufficient assessment for ADHD and monitoring its treatment. The symptoms must be manifested in more than one environment for instance in school and at home in order to meet DSM-IV criteria in diagnosing for the condition (Barkley, 2005, p.96). This is only one of many components of a comprehensive evaluation that should include interviews and medical examination. According to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, the most commonly used scales are: the Child Behavior Checklist completed by the parent, Teacher Report Form (TRF), Barkley Home Situations Questionnaire (HSQ), ADD-H: Comprehensive Teacher Rating Scale (ACTeRS), Conners Parent and Teacher Rating Scales and the Barkley School Situations Questionnaire (SSQ). The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), says that ADHD-specific rating scales produce more accurate results when distinguishing between children whether a diagnosis of ADHD was initially conducted or not compared to global rating scales and nonspecific questionnaires that assess a variety of behavioral conditions (Barkley, 2005, p. 103). Behavioral assessments Not all inattentive, overly hyperactive, or impulsive persons have an attention deficit disorder. This is because most people will at times unintentionally blurt out things, randomly shift between tasks, or become forgetful and disorganized (Jensen & Cooper, 2002, p. 41). To assess for ADHD, several critical questions are put into consideration. Some of these questions include: are the behaviors long-term, excessive and pervasive? Do they happen more frequently than in other persons the same age? Is it a problem that is continuous or just a reaction to a situation that is temporary? Do the behaviors manifest in different settings or only in a specific place? The behavior pattern of the person is then compared against a set criteria and characteristics of the disorder (Brown, 2005, p.33). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders version IV (DSM-IV) manual contains these characteristics and criteria. Disorders with symptoms similar to ADHD One of the difficulties of using a questionnaire in diagnosing ADHD is that the condition is often accompanied by other disorders. Quantitative EEG which is an examination of brain function can do a better job in differenting between the disorders that have a lot of behavioral overlaps. The following are several of such disorders. Learning Difficulties: Many ADHD children also have a learning disability (LD). This means
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Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or AD/HD or ADD) is a development and neurological disorder. Previously this disorder was named as minimal brain dysfunction, minimal brain damage, hyperactivity, hyper kinesis, and hyperactive child syndrome.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)" Introduction Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder popularly called as ADHD, is a developmental, neurobiological state characterized by the existence of strict and persistent signs of inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impetuosity (American Psychiatric Association (APA), 1994).
Introduction ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) is a mental condition that initially appears during childhood stage.The affected child demonstrates unusual levels of inattention and hyperactivity. However, one or both of these two symptoms may occur at the same time.The prevalence rate of attention hyperactivity disorder among the children ranges from 3-5% (DuPaul and Stoner 2003).
Treatment of such state should be taken care with endurance and persistence. Professionals involving a social worker, psychotherapist or doctor of psychiatry must take care of this condition. The present article is an attempt to foster an understanding towards the psychological implications of the ADHD as it pertains to listening comprehension.
Parallel problem relationship patterns with peers and family unit often require involvement. This paper will research through an interview on the middle childhood stage. The interview and observation is carried on a young girl suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
Understanding ADHD. For such a long time, children who cannot sit still in class, will not stop talking and are often disruptive in class have been labelled as ADD, short for Attention Deficit Disorder. Over time, the word “hyperactivity” was inserted in the term, making it Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder due to the over-activity manifested by several of these children.
ADHD could be detected incorrectly as anxiety, depression or mood disorder. ADHD has several subtypes such as predominantly inattentive, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive and combined form of these two. There is not much clarity on causes of ADHD; it could be due to genetic or environmental reasons.
Doggett (2004) indicated that despite continued research, there is hardly any professional agreement regarding the true nature of this problem and consequently (Doggett, 2004), as Barkley et al. (2002) had highlighted that there is no consensus regarding the science, diagnosis, and treatment of ADHD.
This essay discusses that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a severe mental problem seen among young children in many countries. ADHD is a behavioral and developmental disorder which causes inattention or hyperactivity among the affected children which may retard the learning process if not taught in a specific way.
ely or impulsively; however, for an incredible number of individuals these signs of impulsivity, hyperactivity and poor attention happen frequently and with adequate intensity causing significant incapacity in performance at school, or any other lifestyle activity. Some of
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