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One is parental attitudes that influence how they regard Math. Another is also the way teachers of early childhood education do not prioritize Math as much as literacy learning. Children who are exposed to negative views of Math at such an early age, are most likely to develop the same negative attitudes towards a subject area that will prove to be very significant in their lives. It is believed that whatever perceptions of what Math is at this early stage will impact their views, attitudes and even performance when they grow older. Hence it is crucial that provision of high quality early childhood Math programs in the foundation stage be ensured (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2000).It is equally important to know how teachers of Math perceive how their young students learn the subject and what particular concepts and skills to teach at that sensitive stage of development. It is a common experience of most people to dread Math and this does not exclude Math teachers who may still nurture some negative emotions for the subject. Good teachers are central to the development of positive attitudes towards a potentially gruelling subject that most people find difficulty in. Enhancing their confidence and competence in their teaching skills goes a long way in implementing an efficient Math program. Schools should be able to provide quality training for teachers that focus both on the relevant content and the development of a positive disposition towards the subject (Tsamir & Tirosh, 2009). This is echoed by the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) which calls for the education, experience and expertise of teachers when decisions regarding children’s programs are made (Decker et al, 2009). Platas (2008) came up with the instruments, Knowledge of Mathematical Development (KMD) Survey and the Beliefs Survey that measure the knowledge of early mathematical development and beliefs about mathematics teaching and learning in the preschool classroom of preschool teachers. She found in her study that there was a significant variation in the knowledge and beliefs of early childhood teachers on age-appropriateness of math instruction, classroom locus of generation of mathematical knowledge, math versus socio-emotional development and the comfort level in providing the instruction. Standardizing such knowledge will greatly aid new teachers and old teachers alike in knowing what to teach. Platas’ instrument is very helpful in preparing future Math teachers. Platas’ work has raised many issues and beliefs regarding the developmental knowledge of preschoolers. Such issues include age-appropriateness of mathematical instruction used by teachers in preschools, the extent of learning of such mathematical concepts taught, the purpose of teaching math concepts in preschool and the comfort level of teachers when they introduce such math concepts to preschool children (Clement & Sarama, 2007; Ginsburg & Golbeck, 2004; Platas, 2008). 2. Preschool Teachers' Knowledge of Mathematical Development Platas (2008) defines early mathematical development as “the increasingly complex mathematical constructions and goals that young children develop and pursue in their activities (p.3). It follows the teacher’s knowledge of mathematical development refers to their adeptness in understanding this definition and knowing how to implement developmentally-appropriate programs to help their students achieve these goals. Standardized goals for mathematical development have been developed by several national and state organizations. Forty-six states have
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(“Overview of the Current Preschool Mathematics Teaching Dissertation”, n.d.)
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(Overview of the Current Preschool Mathematics Teaching Dissertation)
“Overview of the Current Preschool Mathematics Teaching Dissertation”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/education/1394933-comparing-pre-service-and-in-service-teachers-math.
Preschool is a time when children may first encounter mathematical learning, however, much recent research has indicated that preschool children have the ability to understand a variety of mathematical concepts even prior to entering kindergarten (Klein, Stakey, Clements, Sarama, & Lyer, 2008; Clement & Sarama, 2007).
School readiness demands that children possess certain social, emotional, physical, cognitive, and language abilities. With a wide array of domains that characterize school readiness, teachers make an effort to give the best suggestions as to how to cultivate, support, and strengthen the growth and progress of children as they enter formal education.
Most of these researches and findings will be discussed in this chapter with an aim of appreciating and having an overview of the progress that has been made in this field of study. The literature review section will be divided into subtitles to ease the understanding amongst the uses of this proposed research.
That is why early childhood programs are increasingly required to implement mathematics instruction in classrooms because of young children’s early mathematical knowledge. Development of early math skills provides the foundation for later learning (Clements & Sarama, 2008; NAEYC & NCTM, 2008; Lee & Ginsburg, 2008).
o local problems 32 1.9.2 Professional application 33 1.9.3Application for bringing positive social change 33 1.10 Summary and Transition 33 Bibliography 36 Appendix 1 39 Appendix 2 40 Georgia CRCT Results for Appling County 40 Appendix 3 44 Lexile Map of Georgia 44 Appendix 4 45 Individual Lexile Report 45 Appendix 5 46 Results of NWEA (2011) Study 46 Table of Figures Figure 1: Plan for review of theoretical framework for the study 6 Figure 2: Grade level text and Reader Lexile Boundaries with median Lexiles and Lexile at cut scores 15 Figure 3: Four pillars of NCLB 16 Figure 4: Mapping Educational Progress: under NCLB all states in the US have made significant educational progress 18 Figure
Discussion 14 5. Conclusion 18 References 20 Appendix 23 Abbreviations used ALT Assistant Language Teachers CLT Communicative Language Teaching EFL English as a Foreign Language JALT Japan Association for Language Teaching JET The Japan Exchange and Teaching Program JTE Japanese Teachers of English L1/2 First/Second Language MEXT Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Japanese terms Juken Eigo English for the purpose of entrance examinations (or simply ‘English for exams’) Monbukagakusho National Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture of Japan Yakudoku Word by word translation of written English into Japanese The extent to which it is appropriate or possible
With the advancements and developments that the world is encountering, the educational and learning curriculum and the teaching methods have improved and enhanced in a continuous way that have left an indelible impression on the achievement of the student’s progress in a productive and positive manner
Rural areas, however, has preschool facilities that lag far behind their urban counterparts in terms of quality, regularity of programs, and management. To properly manage and develop the system of preschool education in China, private companies will continue to take the lead, with the input of the national government of the PRC.
Students develop intellectually when they take the mathematics problems and apply their own knowledge when solving it. The project method promotes dialogue between students because they discuss and share knowledge in Mathematics when working on the project.
Teachers should be able to gauge themselves on effectiveness and engage in activities that aim at improving their work. This could be by involving their colleagues in discussions and talks on the areas that are of concern and use of observation on colleagues with good performances.
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